Order Spariformes (ray-finned fish)

Actinopteri - Spariformes

Parent taxon: Percomorpharia according to R. Betancur-R et al. 2013

Sister taxa: Acanthuriformes, Acropomatidae, Caesionidae, Caproidae, Centrarchiformes, Centrogenyidae, Chaetodontidae, Cirrhitiformes, Emmelichthyidae, Enoplosidae, Ephippiformes, Epigonidae, Gerreidae, Haemulidae, Howellidae, Kuhliidae, Kyphosidae, Labriformes, Lateolabracidae, Leiognathidae, Lobotidae, Lophiiformes, Lutjanidae, Malacanthidae, Monodactylidae, Moronidae, Oplegnathidae, Pempheriformes, Percichthyidae, Perciformes, Polyprionidae, Pomacanthidae, Priacanthidae, Scatophagidae, Sciaenidae, Siganidae, Sillaginidae, Sinipercidae, Terapontidae, Tetraodontiformes, Uranoscopiformes

Subtaxa: Centracanthidae Lethrinidae Nemipteridae Sparidae

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Ecology: nektonic omnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of France (1 collection), Greece (1), Italy (4), the Marshall Islands (3), Spain (1), United States (3: Florida, Georgia)

• Pliocene of Angola (1), Italy (2), Libya (1), Morocco (1), Portugal (1), United States (3: Florida, North Carolina)

• Hemphillian of Costa Rica (1)

• Miocene of Algeria (3), Argentina (4), Austria (3), Colombia (1), Costa Rica (2), the Czech Republic (3), France (5), Germany (3), India (1), Indonesia (1), Italy (5), Japan (1), Kazakhstan (1), Panama (1), Poland (1), Portugal (1), Saudi Arabia (1), Slovakia (1), South Africa (1), Spain (8), Sri Lanka (2), Turkey (1), United States (4: California, Florida, Virginia)

• Oligocene of Belgium (1), France (1), Germany (4), Hungary (3), Oman (2), United States (2: Louisiana, South Carolina)

• Eocene of Antarctica (2), France (1), Germany (1), Italy (1), Libya (1), Namibia (1), Nigeria (2), the United Kingdom (12), United States (2: Louisiana, Virginia)

• Paleocene of Denmark (3), Ukraine (1), United States (1: Alabama)

• Cretaceous of Argentina (1), Brazil (1), France (6)

Total: 126 collections including 217 occurrences

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