Family Syngnathidae (ray-finned fish)

Actinopteri - Syngnathiformes - Syngnathidae

Parent taxon: Syngnathoidei according to R. Betancur-R et al. 2013

See also Bannikov 2014, Danil'chenko 1960, David 1943, Jordan 1963, Přikryl et al. 2016 and Zalohar et al. 2009

Sister taxa: Calamostoma, Centriscoidea, Fistulariidae, Pegasoidea, Syngnathoidea

Subtaxa: Acanthognathus Eogastrophinae Hippocampus Prosolenostomus Syngnathinae Syngnathus Syngnathus bolcensis Syngnathus heckeli

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Ecology: nektonic omnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Italy (1 collection)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of Italy (1)

• Pliocene of Cyprus (1), Greece (1), Italy (3), United States (1: Florida)

• Miocene of Algeria (3), Austria (1), Azerbaijan (2), Cyprus (1), Greece (1), Italy (7), Slovenia (1), United States (4: California)

• Oligocene to Miocene of the Russian Federation (2)

• Oligocene of Azerbaijan (1), Georgia (1), Germany (1), Poland (1), Romania (1), the Russian Federation (1)

• Eocene of Italy (1)

Total: 37 collections including 49 occurrences

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