Family Viperidae Oppel 1811 (viper)

Reptilia - Squamata - Viperidae

Full reference: M. Oppel. 1811. Die Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen der Reptilien als Prodom einer Naturgeschichte Derselben. Joseph Lindauer, München xii-86

Parent taxon: Solenoglypha according to O. Kuhn 1946

See also Böhme 2008, Carroll 1988, Cernansky et al. 2015, Cope 1871, Cope 1875, Frank and Ramus 1996, Szyndlar 1987, Venczel and Stiuca 2008 and Zittel 1890

Sister taxa: Atractaspididae, Causidae

Subtaxa: Crotalinae Provipera Provipera boettgeri Viperinae

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Ecology: ground dwelling carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Bolivia (1 collection), France (8), Georgia (2), Germany (2), Greece (2), the Netherlands (1), Poland (9), Serbia and Montenegro (1), South Africa (3), Spain (5), Tanzania (5), the United Kingdom (5), United States (71: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia)

• Blancan of Mexico (1), United States (9: Kansas, Nebraska, Washington)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of France (1), Italy (1)

• Pliocene of Armenia (1), France (1), Greece (1), Hungary (2), Moldova (1), Morocco (1), Poland (5), the Russian Federation (1), Spain (9), Tanzania (3), Ukraine (5)

• MN 13 of Hungary (1), Ukraine (3)

• Hemphillian of United States (7: Florida, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Tennessee)

• Miocene of Austria (2), the Czech Republic (2), France (11), Georgia (1), Germany (15), Greece (2), Hungary (9), Italy (1), Japan (1), Kazakhstan (1), Moldova (1), Morocco (1), Namibia (2), Poland (1), Portugal (1), Romania (1), the Russian Federation (2), Saudi Arabia (1), Slovakia (1), Spain (5), Thailand (1), Turkey (1), Ukraine (7), United States (10: Delaware, Florida, Nebraska, Texas, Wyoming)

• Harrisonian of United States (1: Nebraska)

• Oligocene of Germany (1)

Total: 250 collections including 326 occurrences

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