Subfamily Monachinae Trouessart 1897 (seal)

Mammalia - Carnivora - Phocidae

Parent taxon: Phocidae according to L. Dewaele et al. 2018

See also Adam 2004, Amson and Muizon 2013, Berta 2002, Berta 2009, Berta 2017, Berta 2018, Berta et al. 2018, Berta et al. 2015, Bianucci et al. 2011, Boessenecker and Churchill 2016, Davis et al. 2004, Deméré et al. 2003, Dewaele and Lambert 2018, Dewaele et al. 2018, Friant 1947, Fulton and Strobeck 2010, Ginsburg and Janvier 1971, Ginsburg and Janvier 1999, Govender 2018, Hendey 1974, Kellogg 1922, Koretsky 1991, Koretsky 2001, Koretsky and Barnes 2008, Koretsky and Domning 2014, Koretsky and Grigorescu 2002, Koretsky and Holec 2002, Koretsky et al. 2014, Koretsky and Ray 2008, Kurten and Anderson 1980, Ling and Bryden 1992, Muizon 1981, Muizon 1981, Muizon 1982, Muizon and Bond 1982, Muizon and Hendey 1980, Rahmat et al. 2017, Rice 1998, Riedman 1990, Scheffer and Rice 1963, Stirling 1971, Trouessart 1898, Trouessart 1904, Valenzuela-Toro et al. 2015 and Weber 1928

Sister taxa: Cystophorinae, Devinophocinae, Halichoerina, Manatus maeoticus, Messiphoca, Miophoca, Miophoca vetusta, Monachina, Monotherium, Ogmorhininae, Phoca ambigua, Phoca bessarabica, Phoca novorossica, Phocinae, Properiptychus, Stenorhynchina

Subtaxa: Acrophoca Afrophoca Auroraphoca Australophoca Callophoca Hadrokirus Homiphoca Hydrurga Leptonychotes Lobodon Lobodontini Mesotaria Mirounga Miroungini Monachini Monachus Monotherium wymani Neomonachus Noriphoca Ommatophoca Paleophoca nystii Palmidophoca Piscophoca Pliophoca Pontophoca Pristiphoca Pristiphoca occitana Terranectes Terranectes magnus Terranectes parvus Virginiaphoca

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Ecology: amphibious piscivore-carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Antarctica (7 collections), Argentina (2), the Bahamas (11), Belize (2), Canada (3: British Columbia), Chile (3), Colombia (2), Costa Rica (1), Cuba (5), the Dominican Republic (1), France (1), Guadeloupe (1), Honduras (9), Italy (3), Jamaica (5), Mexico (12), Morocco (4), Namibia (1), the Netherlands Antilles (7), New Zealand (4), Nicaragua (2), Portugal (2), Saint Kitts and Nevis (2), South Africa (10), Spain (2), Turks and Caicos Islands (1), United States (64: Alaska, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Oregon, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Texas, Virgin Islands, Washington), Venezuela (2), Virgin Islands (1)

• Pliocene of Belgium (5), Egypt (1), France (1), Italy (7), New Zealand (1), South Africa (6), Spain (2), United States (10: Florida, North Carolina, Virginia)

• Hemphillian of United States (2: Florida)

• Miocene to Pliocene of South Africa (4), United States (1: Virginia)

• Miocene of Australia (1), Azerbaijan (1), Chile (5), Denmark (1), Egypt (1), France (6), Italy (1), Libya (1), Malta (1), Moldova (2), the Netherlands (1), Peru (8), Romania (1), the Russian Federation (1), South Africa (2), Ukraine (2), United States (6: Massachusetts, Virginia)

Total: 251 collections including 280 occurrences

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