Family Rhamnaceae Jussieu 1789 (buckthorn)

Angiospermae - Rosales - Rhamnaceae

Parent taxon: Rosales according to Z. K. Zhou et al. 2020

See also Chandler 1961, Chandler 1963, Knowlton 1919, Mabberley 2000, MacGinitie 1941, McIver and Basinger 1993, Taylor et al. 2008 and The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2016

Sister taxa: Barbeyaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Cannabaceae, Davidsoniaceae, Dialypetalanthaceae, Dirachmaceae, Drupaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Eucryphiaceae, Mimosaceae, Papilionaceae, Pomaceae, Rosaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae

Subtaxa: Alphitonia Archaeopaliurus Berchemia Berchemiopsis Berhamniphyllum Ceanothus Colubrina Condalia Emmenosperma Eorhamnidium Helobiaephyllum Hovenia Hoveniphyllum Karwinskia Lasiodiscus Nothiantha Notiantha Paliurites Paliurus Phyliceae Pomaderris Pomaderrites Protolotus Reynosia Rhamnacinium Rhamneaepites Rhamnella Rhamnidium Rhamnites Rhamnospermum Rhamnoxylon Rhamnus Suessenia Ventilago Ziziphus Zizyphoxylon Zizyphus

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Ecology: "photoautotroph"

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Australia (36 collections), China (2), France (1), India (5), Japan (3), Kenya (3), Tanzania (2), United States (1: Florida)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of China (1), India (1)

• Pliocene of China (1), Germany (2), India (1), Italy (1), United States (2: Nevada)

• Hemphillian of United States (1: California)

• Miocene to Pliocene of France (1), India (3), Japan (3), Trinidad and Tobago (1)

• Miocene to Oligocene of United States (1: Montana)

• Miocene of Argentina (3), Bhutan (1), China (9), Cuba (1), Denmark (1), Ecuador (1), Germany (38), India (3), Japan (6), Kenya (6), Nepal (2), the Russian Federation (1), Switzerland (3), United States (12: California, Montana, Nevada, Washington), Venezuela (1)

• Neogene of China (1), India (1)

• Oligocene to Miocene of Australia (3), United States (2: Montana)

• Oligocene of Germany (3), Japan (1), the Russian Federation (4), United States (7: Idaho, Montana, Oregon)

• Eocene to Oligocene of Antarctica (1), United States (4: Colorado)

• Eocene of Canada (1: British Columbia), China (6), France (1), Germany (1), Japan (2), the United Kingdom (9), United States (35: California, Colorado, Idaho, Kentucky, Tennessee, Washington, Wyoming, Wyoming )

• Paleocene of Argentina (2), Canada (2: Saskatchewan), China (1), United States (21: Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Wyoming)

• Paleogene of India (3)

• Tertiary of Japan (3)

• Cretaceous of Canada (19: Alberta, British Columbia), Colombia (1), India (1), Mexico (1), Myanmar (2), the Russian Federation (1), United States (42: Georgia, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming)

Total: 341 collections including 454 occurrences

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