†family Loxonematidae Koken 1889 (snail)

Gastropoda - Murchisoniina - Loxonematidae

Synonym: Holopellidae Koken 1896

Full reference: E. Koken. 1889. Ueber die Entwickelung der Gastropoden vom Cambrium bis zur Trias. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Palaeontologie 6: 305–484. 6:305-484

Parent taxon: Loxonematoidea according to P. Bouchet et al. 2005

See also Cossmann 1909, Golikov and Starobogatov 1975, Horný 1953, Knight et al. 1960, Peel 1975 and Ponder and Warén 1988

Sister taxa: Abyssochrysidae, Acrospira, Crassimarginatidae, Palaeozygopleuridae, Scoliostomatidae, Soleniscidae, Spirostylidae, Vetotuba, Zygopleuridae

Subtaxa: Aulacostrepsis Australoxa Clathronema Cookiloxa Heideckernema Holopella Katoptychia Knightia Loxonema Nodoloxonema Omospirinae Perneratia Stylonema Tyrsoecus

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Type: Loxonema

Ecology: facultatively mobile epifaunal suspension feeder

Distribution:

• Triassic of Algeria (1 collection), China (9), Colombia (1), Germany (10), Greenland (4), Hungary (4), Italy (18), Mexico (1), Peru (1), Poland (1), United States (1: Idaho)

• Permian of Italy (4), Pakistan (2), the Russian Federation (6), United States (1: Texas)

• Osagean of United States (2: Indiana, Ohio)

• Carboniferous of China (1), Ireland (1), Morocco (1), Poland (1), the United Kingdom (2), United States (8: Alaska, Iowa, Kentucky, Montana, Utah)

• Mississippian of United States (1: Colorado)

• Couvinien of Australia (1)

• Devonian of Algeria (1), Australia (39), Austria (10), Canada (1: Northwest Territories), the Czech Republic (9), France (2), Germany (15), Italy (3), Kazakhstan (13), Libya (1), New Zealand (2), Poland (5), South Africa (1), the United Kingdom (6), United States (46: Alaska, California, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania)

• Silurian to Devonian of Argentina (1), Australia (1), Pakistan (1)

• Silurian of Argentina (2), Australia (3), Austria (2), Canada (7: Northwest Territories, Ontario, Quebec), China (2), the Czech Republic (13), Greenland (1), Norway (3), the Russian Federation (1), Sweden (2), the United Kingdom (38), United States (27: California, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan and Ohio, New York, Tennessee, Wisconsin)

• Ordovician to Silurian of Canada (1: Northwest Territories)

• Ordovician of Canada (28: Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Quebec), China (2), the Czech Republic (1), Ireland (1), Norway (4), Sweden (3), the United Kingdom (15), United States (41: Alaska, Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Kentucky, Minnesota, New York, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia)

Total: 436 collections including 563 occurrences

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