Cerro Observatorio (Miocene of Argentina)

Also known as Monte Observación of Ameghino

Where: Santa Cruz, Argentina (50.6° S, 69.1° W: paleocoordinates 51.2° S, 63.4° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Santa Cruz Formation, Santacrucian (17.5 - 16.3 Ma)

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithology not reported

Size class: mesofossils

Primary reference: S. F. Vizcaíno, R. F. Kay, and M. S. Bargo. 2012. Background for a paleoecological study of the Santa Cruz Formation (late Early Miocene) on the Atlantic Coast of Patagonia. In S. F. Vizcaí­no, R. F. Kay, M. S. Bargo (eds.), Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation 1-22 [J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra/J. Zijlstra]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 176570: authorized by Jelle Zijlstra, entered by Jelle Zijlstra on 17.02.2016, edited by Miranta Kouvari, Grace Varnham and Kateryn Pino

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Mammalia
  -
Mammalia indet.13 Linnaeus 1758 mammal
MACN-A 7781, distal humerus, labeled as "Plagiocoelus? latus". According to McDonald et al. (2008), "It appears that this species was never formally described. The specimen cannot be assigned to Plagiocoelus and is probably not a vermilinguan."
 Microbiotheria - Microbiotheriidae
"Microbiotherium patagonicum" = Microbiotherium patagonicum12, "Stylognathus diprotodontoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum12, "Hadrorhynchus conspicuus n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum12, "Microbiotherium tehuelchum" = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Hadrorhynchus torvus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Hadrorhynchus tortor n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Eodidelphys famula n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Eodidelphys fortis n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Microbiotherium forticulum n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Phonocdromus patagonicus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Halmarhiphus didelpoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12, "Prodidelphys acicula n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12, "Prodidelphys obtusa n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12, "Prodidelphys pavita n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12
"Microbiotherium patagonicum" = Microbiotherium patagonicum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5721, dentary m2-3 (syntype of _Halmarhiphus nanus_); MACN 5704, dentary m3-4 (?syntype of _Garzonia annectens_)
"Stylognathus diprotodontoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5728, dentary m2-4, lectotype
"Hadrorhynchus conspicuus n. sp." = Microbiotherium patagonicum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5740, dentary p2-m1, type
"Microbiotherium tehuelchum" = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5724, dentary p3; 5726, dentary p3; 5730, dentary p3-m1, m3-4; 5731, dentary m1, m3; 5733, dentary p2-m3; 5734, dentary c-p3; (coll. 1890-91); 8477, dentary p2-m2; 8478, dentary m2 (coll. 1891-92); 8475, dentary p3-m4; 8476, dentary p1-3, m1 talonid; 8506, dentary p1-m4; 8507, dentary m2-4 (coll. 1892-93); and types of synonyms
"Hadrorhynchus torvus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5739, dentary p2-3
"Hadrorhynchus tortor n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5738, dentary p3
"Eodidelphys famula n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5732, dentary p1-m4
"Eodidelphys fortis n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5729, dentary p1-m4
"Microbiotherium forticulum n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5725, dentary p1-m1
"Phonocdromus patagonicus n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5741, dentary
"Halmarhiphus didelpoides n. sp." = Microbiotherium tehuelchum12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5716, dentary m1-2
"Prodidelphys acicula n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12 Ameghino 1891 marsupial
MACN 5735, dentary c-m1, type; MACN 5727, dentary p3-m4, syntype (but not lectotype) of _Stylognathus diprotodontoides_
"Prodidelphys obtusa n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12 Ameghino 1891 marsupial
MACN 5737, dentary c, type
"Prodidelphys pavita n. sp." = Microbiotherium acicula12 Ameghino 1891 marsupial
MACN 5736, dentary p1-3, type
 Paucituberculata - Pichipilidae
Phonocdromus gracilis12 Ameghino 1894 marsupial
MACN 5722, dentary p3
 Paucituberculata - Palaeothentidae
Propalaeothentes lepidus5 Bown and Fleagle 1993 marsupial
SC-2903
Palaeothentes pascuali1 Bown and Fleagle 1993 marsupial
Palaeothentes minutus1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
Palaeothentes intermedius1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
Palaeothentes aratae1 Moreno 1882 marsupial
Palaeothentes lemoinei1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
"Acdestis owenii" = Acdestis oweni1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
Acdestis lemairei1 Bown and Fleagle 1993 marsupial
 Paucituberculata - Abderitidae
Abderites meridionalis1 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN-A 5542, dentary m1-4; MACN-A 2037, dentary p3-m4
 Paucituberculata - Caenolestidae
"Stilotherium dissimile" = Stilotherium dissimile12, "Garzonia annectens n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12, "Pichipilus exilis n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12, "Halmarhiphus nanus n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12, "Garzonia typica n. gen. n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12, "Garzonia minima n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12
"Stilotherium dissimile" = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5701, dentary p2, m1-3; 5702, dentary p1-2, m1-2; 5710, dentary m1-3; 5723, dentary p2-3, parts of m1-2 (coll. 1890-91); 8456, dentary m2-4 (coll. 1891-92)
"Garzonia annectens n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5703, dentary m1-4
"Pichipilus exilis n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5698, dentary m3
"Halmarhiphus nanus n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5720, dentary m2-3
"Garzonia typica n. gen. n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5700, dentary p2-3, m1-2
"Garzonia minima n. sp." = Stilotherium dissimile12 Ameghino 1887 marsupial
MACN 5709, dentary m2-4
 Sparassodonta - Borhyaenidae
"Prothylacynus patagonicus" = Prothylacynus patagonicus10, "Borhyaena excavata n. sp." = Prothylacynus patagonicus10, Borhyaena tuberata14
"Prothylacynus patagonicus" = Prothylacynus patagonicus10 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 670, M2
"Borhyaena excavata n. sp." = Prothylacynus patagonicus10 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 649, canine, lectotype
Borhyaena tuberata14 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
 Sparassodonta -
"Sipalocyon pusillus n. sp." = Pseudonotictis pusillus11, "Protoproviverra obusta n. sp." = Sipalocyon obusta11, "Sipalocyon gracilis n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11, "Perathereutes obtusus n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11, "Perathereutes amputans n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11, "Amphiproviverra minuta n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11, Anatherium defossus n. gen. n. sp.11, "Cladosictis patagonica" = Cladosictis patagonica11, "Agustylus minus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11, "Ictioborus fenestratus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11, "Protoproviverra ensidens n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11, Perathereutes pungens n. gen. n. sp.11
"Sipalocyon pusillus n. sp." = Pseudonotictis pusillus11 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 666, right dentary, holotype
"Protoproviverra obusta n. sp." = Sipalocyon obusta11 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN 686, dentary m1-2, m4; 687, dentary fragment; both are one individual
"Sipalocyon gracilis n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 667, dentary c-p2; MACN 668, dentary m1-3; MACN 6286, dentary p2-3; MACN 647, mandible p2-m2, holotype; MACN 688, maxilla P1; MACN 704, maxilla M2-3
"Perathereutes obtusus n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 683, dentary m1-2
"Perathereutes amputans n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 682, dentary m1-3
"Amphiproviverra minuta n. sp." = Sipalocyon gracilis11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 685, partial M2
Anatherium defossus n. gen. n. sp.11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 646, dentary p3, m3; MACN 669, dentary p2, holotype
"Cladosictis patagonica" = Cladosictis patagonica11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 639, C; MACN 640, C; MACN 641, maxillary M1; MACN 673, dentary c-m4; MACN 674, dentary p3-m4; MACN 675a, dentary right m1-2, left m1-3; MACN 690, maxillary P3; MACN 9350, mailla P2-M4; MACN 9351, mandible m2-3
"Agustylus minus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 671, dentary m2-4; MACN 672, dentary m2-4 (same individual, both form the holotype)
"Ictioborus fenestratus n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 664, dentary p2, m2-3
"Protoproviverra ensidens n. sp." = Cladosictis patagonica11 Ameghino 1887 metatherian
MACN 689, dentary p1-3
Perathereutes pungens n. gen. n. sp.11 Ameghino 1891 metatherian
MACN-A 684, dentary m1-4, holotype
 Rodentia - Acaremyidae
Acaremys murinus2 Ameghino 1887 caviomorph
MACN PV SC1694, SC1831
Acaremys tricarinatus n. sp.2 Ameghino 1894 caviomorph
MACN A 4113, holotype
 Rodentia - Octodontidae
Sciamys tenuissimus3 Ameghino 1894 caviomorph
MACN-A 4145,6 (syntype Sciamys tenuissimus)
 Rodentia -
Stichomys diminutus n. sp.3 Ameghino 1891 caviomorph
MACN-A 4265
Acarechimys sp.3 Patterson 1965 caviomorph
MACN-A 4062, MACN-A 4067
Acarechimys minutissimus3 Ameghino 1887 caviomorph
MACN-A 4072b, MACN-A 4265, MACN-A 4266
Acarechimys minutus3 Patterson and Pascual 1967 caviomorph
MACN-A 4072a, MACN-A 4073
Acarechimys gracilis3 Ameghino 1891 caviomorph
MACN-A 4060, MACN-A 4068
 Rodentia - Abrocomidae
"Acarechimys constans" = Ameghinomys constans3
"Acarechimys constans" = Ameghinomys constans3 Ameghino 1887 chinchilla rat
MACN-A 4058, MACN-A 4061, MACN-A 4064, MACN-A 4074MACN-A 4075
 Primates - Homunculidae
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus9, "Stilotherium grande n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus9, "Pitheculus australis n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus9
"Homunculus patagonicus" = Homunculus patagonicus9 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 5969, left mandible with ascending ramus and partial condyle with m2 and alveolus for m3; MACN-A 10403, dentary m1-2; MACN SC 1149, m2? (Stake 147); 274, M3; 275, C; 332, incisor (Stake 22); 334, M2 (Stake 13); 335, C (Stake 2); 336, dentary m1-2 (Stake 28); 337, M2 (Stake 19); 338, m1 (Stake 69); 339, dentary m1-2 (Stake 69); 341, m1 (Stake 29); 402, c (Stake 110); 2916, P3 (Stake 206); 2918, m2 (Stake 206); 3026, p4 (Stake 7); 3089, I1; 3090, m2?; 3112, M2 (Stake 19); 3114, i1 (Stake 19); 3200, m2; 3116, p2 (Stake 25); 342, M2 (Stake 54)
"Stilotherium grande n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus9 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 8648, right dp4
"Pitheculus australis n. gen. n. sp." = Homunculus patagonicus9 Ameghino 1891 monkey
MACN-A 5966, left mandibular fragment with m2, type
 Panameriungulata - Proterotheriidae
Diadiaphorus majusculus6 Ameghino 1887 placental
MACN-A 9137, cranium
"Anisolophus australis" = Proterotherium australe6 Burmeister 1879 placental
MACN-A 2832, tibia
Thoatherium minusculum6 Ameghino 1887 placental
MACN-A 2958, mandible
 Panameriungulata - Macraucheniidae
Theosodon lydekkeri6 Ameghino 1887 placental
MACN-A 2545–57, tibia; 9252–53, tibia
 Theriamorpha - Propalaehoplophoridae
"Eucinepeltus petesatus n. gen. n. sp." = Encinepeltus petesatus15
"Eucinepeltus petesatus n. gen. n. sp." = Encinepeltus petesatus15 Ameghino 1891 edentate
MACN-A 4758, skull; 4760, mandible; 4761, mandible
 Theriamorpha -
Adiastaltus procerus n. sp.13 Ameghino 1894 edentate
MACN A-7779, distal humerus
 Megatherioidea - Megalonychidae
Hapalops sp.4 Ameghino 1887 edentate
YPM-VPPU 15836, postcrania
 Theriamorpha -
Anathitus revelator n. gen. n. sp.13
Anathitus revelator n. gen. n. sp.13 Ameghino 1894 edentate
"Type = MACN A-7782 distal right humerus (pathological), A-7783 lumbar (missing)"
 Theriamorpha - Chlamyphoridae
Stenotatus patagonicus15 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-A 4874–4875, mandible and osteoderms; MACN-A 7801–7802, fragment of mandible and osteoderms
Stenotatus cf. patagonicus15 Ameghino 1887 edentate
MACN-Pv Sc406, skull, postcrania
Stenotatus hesternus15 Ameghino 1889 edentate
MACN-A 4873, carapace and bone fragments
 Theriamorpha - Dasypodidae
"Proeutatus carinatus" = Eutatus carinatus15, "Proeutatus deleo" = Eutatus deleo15
"Proeutatus carinatus" = Eutatus carinatus15 Ameghino 1891 armadillo
MACN-A 8041–8042, carapace fragment and osteoderms
"Proeutatus deleo" = Eutatus deleo15 Ameghino 1891 armadillo
MACN-A 4800–4802, mandible, osteoderms, molariform
 Theriamorpha - Peltephilidae
Peltephilus ferox15 Ameghino 1891 edentate
MACN-A 4901, skull
Anantiosodon rarus15 Ameghino 1891 edentate
MACN-A 5119, mandible
 Notoungulata - Toxodontidae
Adinotherium sp.6 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
AMNH 9532, cranium
 Notoungulata - Interatheriidae
Protypotherium compressidens7 Ameghino 1891 notoungulate
Protypotherium praerutilum7 Ameghino 1887 notoungulate
Protypotherium australe7 Moreno 1882 notoungulate
  -
Plagiocoelus obliquus n. gen. n. sp.13
Plagiocoelus obliquus n. gen. n. sp.13 Ameghino 1894 mammal
MACN-A 7780, distal humerus
Reptilia
 Squamata - Colubridae
"Colubridae" indet.8 Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
MACN-PV SC3315-9, incomplete trunk vertebrae