Observation Quarry (Miocene of the United States)

Where: Dawes County, Nebraska (42.7° N, 102.9° W: paleocoordinates 43.3° N, 99.6° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Early/Lower Barstovian (16.0 - 13.6 Ma)

• Olcott Formation equivalent

Environment/lithology: terrestrial

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: T. H. V. Rich. 1981. Origin and History of the Erinaceinae and Brachyericinae (Mammalia, Insectivora) in North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 171(1):1-116 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/P. Mannion]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 17976: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993, edited by Jonathan Marcot, Jelle Zijlstra and Patricia Holroyd

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• directly overlies the Box Butte Fm.
NW 1/4 NW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec 4 T31N R47W: Woodburne 1969
a channel deposit equated with the Olcott Fm. on faunistic grounds only: Rich 1981
Aves
 Falconiformes - Falconidae
Pediohierax ramenta n. gen. n. sp.5
Pediohierax ramenta n. gen. n. sp.5 Wetmore 1936 raptor
"Falco ramenta" type of Wetmore 1936 from "Merychippus quarry"
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Ardea sp.4 Linnaeus 1758 heron
Mammalia
 Rodentia -
Jimomys labaughi n. sp.17 Wahlert 1976 rodent
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Copemys lindsayi12 Sutton and Korth 1995 mouse
FAM 95503, right dentary with m1–m3; UNSM 56730 left dentary with i1 and alveoli for m1–m3; UNSM 56728 left maxilla with M1–M2; UNSM 56729, left maxilla with M1–M3.
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Miospermophilus bryanti12 Wilson 1960 squirrel
FAM 144252, partial crushed skull with incisors, left M1 and right P3, M1–M2; UNSM 56741, P4; UNSM 56742, 56743, 56744, M1 or M2; UNSM 56745, M3; UNSM 56746, 56747, p4; UNSM 56748, m1 or m2; FAM 144250, 144251, 144253, 144254, dentaries with p4–m2; UNSM 56735, three isolated incisors.
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
Leptodontomys cf. stirtoni12 Lindsay 1972 rodent
FAM 144256, nearly complete dentary with i1; FAM 144257, partial dentary with m1.
 Rodentia - Heteromyidae
Mioheteromys subterior n. sp.12 Korth and Evander 2016 rodent
Type Specimen.—UNSM 56737, left p4. Referred Specimens.—UNSM 56738, 56739, 56740, isolated m1 or m2; UNSM 56736, UNSM 56772, isolated I1s; FAM 144258, dentary with i1, p4–m3.
Mookomys altifluminus12 rodent
UNSM 56731, partial dentary with p4; FAM 144259, partial dentary with i1, p4.
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Monosaulax tedi n. sp.10
Monosaulax tedi n. sp.10 Korth 1999 beaver
 Rodentia - Mylagaulidae
Galbreathia bettae1 Sutton and Korth 1995 rodent
Alphagaulus vetus11 Matthew 1924 rodent
Umbogaulus galushai n. sp.11 Korth 2000 rodent
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Hypolagus parviplicatus12 Dawson 1958 rabbit
FAM 144448, partial dentary with p3–m2; FAM 144447, FAM 144455, FAM 144461, FAM 144476, partial dentaries with p4–m2; FAM 144463, partial dentary with p4–m1; FAM 144457, dentary lacking teeth; FAM 144454, fragments of dentary with two associated lower molariform teeth; UNSM 56749, isolated P2; FAM 144460, maxilla with P4–M1; FAM 144452, partial skull with palate and dorsal neurocranium (crushed) with left P4– M2 and right P4–M1; FAM 144459, fragmentary maxilla with two upper molariform teeth; FAM 144466, partial skull in two major pieces: ventral rostrum and palate with left P3–M2 and right P3–M1, and posterior part of skull includ- ing frontal, parietals and squamosals; UNSM 56750, FAM 144458, FAM 144472, isolated upper molariform teeth; FAM 144484, one upper and one lower molariform tooth; FAM 144475, 17 isolated upper and six lower molariform teeth; FAM 144480, three isolated p3s, 18 upper molari- form, and three lower molariform teeth; FAM 144483, ve isolated upper molariform teeth; FAM 144450, complete right femur; FAM 144449, FAM 144453, FAM 144464, par- tial or fragmentary femora; FAM 144469, partial diaphysis and distal epiphysis of left humerus; FAM 144485, metatar- sal lacking proximal epiphysis.
Pronotolagus cf. albus12 Voorhies and Timperley 1997 rabbit
FAM 144483 (in part) p3; FAM 144468, dentary with p3 (unworn)–m2; FAM 144467, FAM 144467, partial dentaries with m1–m2; FAM 144480 (in part), isolated lower molariform tooth.
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Oreolagus nebrascensis12 McGrew 1941 pika
UNSM 56752, P3; UNSM 56753; dP3; UNSM 56754 and 56755, P4; FAM 144473, FAM 144481, FAM 144482, fragmentary maxillae with P4; UNSM 56751, dP4; UNSM 56756 to 56758, M1; FAM 144445, left and right articulated dentaries with complete dentition; FAM 144444, dentary with i1 and p4–m2; FAM 1444470, dentary with p4–m2; FAM 144439 and FAM 144441, partial dentaries with p4–m1; FAM 144442, FAM 144446, FAM 144462, FAM 144471, partial or fragmentary dentaries with m1–m2; FAM 144440, partial dentary with i1 and m1; FAM 144477, FAM 144478, par- tial or fragmentary dentary with m1; FAM 144443, FAM 144474, partial or fragmentary dentaries lacking cheek teeth; UNSM 56759, p4.
 Lipotyphla - Erinaceidae
Lanthanotherium observatum n. sp.12 Korth and Evander 2016 hedgehog
Type Specimen.—FAM 140574, dentary with c1, p4–m3 (Figs. 4E–F). Referred Specimens.—FAM 74976, maxillary fragment with P2, M1; FAM 74969, maxillary fragment with P4– M1; FAM 74969, partial palate with C1, P2–M1; FAM 76691, maxilla with P4–M3; UNSM 56719, P4; UNSM 56716–56718, M1; UNSM 56715, M2; FAM 74971, 74974, 74989, 74988, 74996, 76600, 76601, partial den- tary with p4–m1; FAM 74980, 74990, 76607, 76621, par- tial dentary with p4–m2; FAM 74989, 74997, partial den- tary with p3–m1; FAM 74983, dentary with p3–m2; FAM 74986, 74994, 74998, 76603, partial dentary with m1–m2; FAM 76605, 74973, dentary with m1–m3; FAM 76608, 76614, 76619, UNSM 56721, partial dentary with m2–m3; FAM 74991, dentary with p4–m3; FAM 74981, dentary with p4, m2–m3; FAM 76602, partial dentary with m1, m3; FAM 76606, dentary with p4–m1, m3; FAM 76618, dentary with c1, p3–m1; UNSM 56733, partial dentary with p3–p4; FAM 76613, partial dentary with p2–p4; FAM 74968, 74970, 74975, 74985, 76612, fragmentary dentary with p4; FAM 74992, partial dentary with c1, p4; FAM 74972, 74978, 74987, 74995, 76609, 76610, 76617, fragmentary dentary with m1; FAM 74977, 74993, 74999, 76604, 76611, 76620, fragmentary dentary with m2; FAM 74982, 76615, fragmentary dentary with m3; UNSM 56781, fragmentary dentary with i2; UNSM 56722, 56723, 56724, isolated m1; UNSM 56720, 56726, isolated m2; UNSM 56725, isolated m3.
Metechinus amplior Rich 1981 hedgehog
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Scalopoides hutchisoni n. sp.12 Korth and Evander 2016 mole
Type Specimen.—FAM 144656, right dentary with p2– m2 (Figs. 9A–B). Referred Specimens.—UNSM 56727, right partial den- tary with angle, base of ascending ramus and m3; FAM 144651, 144653, 144654, 144655, partial dentaries with m1–m3; FAM 144652, partial dentary with m2.
 Perissodactyla - Chalicotheriidae
Chalicotheriidae indet.7 Gill 1872 chalicothere
Tylocephalonyx sp.12 Coombs 1979 chalicothere
cited to Coombs (2004)
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Teleoceras medicornutum13 Osborn 1904 rhinoceros
Aphelops megalodus13 Cope 1873 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Anchitherium sp.12 von Meyer 1844 anchitheriine horse
cited to Dingus (1990)
 Tribosphenida - Plesiosoricidae
Plesiosorex greeni12 Martin and Lim 2004 placental
UNSM 56700, dentary with p4– m3 and alveoli for i1–p3; FAM 74915, dentary with p4–m3; FAM 74917, dentary with p4–m1, m3; FAM 76654, dentary with i2, p4–m2; FAM 74904, 74907, 74909, 76648, 76649, 76650, 76653, 76656, 76658, dentaries with p4–m2; FAM 74910, 74911, 74916, 76659, 76661, 76663, 76666, 76667, 76669, 76670, 76682, 76683, 76687, dentaries with p4–m1; FAM 76651, dentary with p3–m4; FAM 76652, 76677, den- tary with i2, m1; FAM 76671, dentary with m1–m3; FAM 74908, 76647, 76657, 76660, 76662, 76664, 76655, 76681, 76688, dentaries with m1–m2; UNSM 56701, FAM 76689, p4; UNSM 56702, FAM 74912, 76665, 76668, 76672, 76674, 76679, 76684, 76686, 76690, m1; UNSM 56703, 56704, 56705, FAM 74919, 76685, 76678, 76680, 76675, m2; FAM 76676, m3; FAM 144249, rostrum of skull with left I1, C, P3–P4 and right I1–I2, P3; FAM 74905, palate with right P3–P4, and left P3–M1; FAM 74904, 74920, maxillae with P4–M2; FAM 74902, maxilla with P3–M1; UNSM 56706–56708, P4; UNSM 56709–56712, 56734, M1; UNSM 56713, 56714, M2.
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Pseudotrimylus roperi12 Wilson 1960 shrew
FAM 94280, fragmentary maxilla with P4–M2 with possibly associated mandibular fragments m3; FAM 94274, dentary with i1, a2–a4, m1– m3; FAM 94269, dentary with i1, a4, and m1–m3; FAM 94266, dentary with i1, m1–m3; FAM 94264, dentary with i1, m1–m2; FAM 94277, dentary with i1, m1; FAM 94279, dentary with a4, m1–m3; FAM 94267, 94271, 94276, den- taries with m1–m3; FAM 94268, 94272, 94278, dentaries with m1–m2; FAM 94281, dentary with m1; FAM 94265, 94273, dentaries with m2–m3; FAM 94275, dentary with m2; FAM 94270, edentulous dentary; UNSM 56773, isolated i1.
Antesorex wilsoni n. sp.12 Korth and Evander 2016 shrew
Type Specimen.—UNSM 56779, right dentary with p4– m2 (Figs. 7E–F). Referred Specimens.—UNSM 56775, dentary with m2– m3; UNSM 56776, dentary with p4–m1; UNSM 56777, left dentary with p4–m3; UNSM 56778, dentary with m1– m2; UNSM 56780, dentary with condyle, ascending ramus and alveoli for m2–m3.
Alluvisorex sp.12 Hutchison 1966 shrew
UNSM 56774, mandibular fragment with left m2.
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Probassariscus matthewi3 Merriam 1911 procyonid carnivore
Arctonasua minima n. sp.2 Baskin 1982 procyonid carnivore
Bassariscus minimus n. sp.3 Baskin 2004 ringtail
definitely not the same as "Rhapsodus tedfordi" or Arctonasua minima
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Pliocyon sp.9 Matthew 1918 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Brachypsalis obliquidens12 Sinclair 1915 mustelid carnivore
cited to Prothero et al. (2008)
Leptarctus oregonensis6 Stock 1930 mustelid carnivore
 Carnivora - Canidae
Leptocyon leidyi16 Tedford et al. 2009 canine
Paracynarctus sinclairi18 Wang et al. 1999 bone-crushing dog
Cynarctoides acridens18 Barbour and Cook 1914 bone-crushing dog
Tomarctus hippophaga18 Matthew and Cook 1909 bone-crushing dog
 Carnivora - Felidae
Pseudaelurus stouti12 Schultz and Martin 1972 cat
cited to Rothwell (2003)
Pseudaelurus marshi12 Thorpe 1922 cat
cited to Rothwell (2003)
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
cf. Myotis indet.12 Kaup 1829 vesper bat
UNSM 56782, left dentary with alveoli for c1–m2.
 Ungulata - Merycoidodontidae
Ticholeptus zygomaticus1 Cope 1878 oreodont
Brachycrus siouense14 Sinclair 1915 oreodont
Merychyus relictus15 Matthew and Cook 1909 oreodont
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Prosthennops xiphodonticus1 Barbour 1925 peccary
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Poebrotherium eximium12 Hay 1902 camel
cited to Prothero (2008)
 Ungulata - Protoceratidae
Lambdoceras siouxensis1 Frick 1937 protoceratid
 Ungulata - Leptomerycidae
Pseudoparablastomeryx scotti1 Frick 1937 ruminant
 Ungulata - Palaeomerycidae
"Drepanomeryx matthewi n. sp." = Drepanomeryx falciformis8, "Dromomeryx whitfordi" = Dromomeryx borealis8, Bouromeryx americanus1
"Drepanomeryx matthewi n. sp." = Drepanomeryx falciformis8 Sinclair 1915 ruminant
"Dromomeryx whitfordi" = Dromomeryx borealis8 Cope 1877 ruminant
Bouromeryx americanus1 Douglass 1899 ruminant
 Ungulata - Moschidae
"Blastomeryx cf. elegans" = Blastomeryx gemmifer8
"Blastomeryx cf. elegans" = Blastomeryx gemmifer8 Cope 1874 musk deer