Family Toxopneustidae Troschel 1872 (sea urchin)

Echinoidea - Camarodonta - Toxopneustidae

Full reference: F. H. Troschel. 1872. Die Familie der Echinocidariden (1). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 38:293-356

Parent taxon: Odontophora according to A. Kroh and A. B. Smith 2010

See also Donovan 1993, Fell and Pawson 1966, Linder et al. 1988 and Smith 2009

Sister taxa: Echinometridae, Strongylocentrotidae

Subtaxa: Goniopneustes Gymnechinus Lytechinus Nudechinus Oligophyma Pseudoboletia Pseudocentrotus Schizechinus Scholiechinus Sphaerechinus Toxopneustes Tripneustes

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Type: Toxopneustes

Ecology: epifaunal grazer-deposit feeder

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Barbados (1 collection), France (1), Jamaica (1), Mauritius (1), United States (1: Florida)

• Pliocene of Fiji (1), United States (2: California, Florida)

• Miocene of Algeria (4), Australia (1), Egypt (1), Italy (2), Morocco (1)

• Oligocene of United States (1: Oregon)

• Cretaceous of Jamaica (1)

Total: 19 collections including 20 occurrences

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