†family Toxasteridae Lambert 1920 (heart urchin)

Echinoidea - Spatangoida - Toxasteridae

Full reference: J. Lambert. 1920. Etude sur quelques formes primitives de Spatangidés. Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Historiques et Naturelles de l’Yonne 73:1-41

Parent taxon: Spatangoida according to A. Kroh and A. B. Smith 2010

See also Fischer 1966

Sister taxa: Allotoxaster, Amoraster, Apoxypetalum, Archaeopneustes, Asterostomatina, Barnumia, Brissidina, Brissoides, Cagaster, Cestobrissus, Cottreaucorys, Echinocoridae, Enichaster, Gonzalezaster, Gymnopatagus, Hemiasteridae, Hemiasterina, Homoeopetalus, Hypselaster, Kertaster, Leymeriaster, Micrasterina, Mortensenaster, Mundaster, Murraypneustes, Neoproraster, Niponaster, Nudobrissus, Orthaster, Palaeostomidae, Paleopneustina, Paraheteraster, Peraspatangus, Peroniaster, Pictaviechinus, Pliotoxaster, Pseudogibbaster, Pseudolinthia, Pseudowashitaster, Pusillaster, Royasendia, Schizobrissus, Somalechinus, Somaliasteridae, Spatagobrissus, Tessieria, Toxasterina, Wuarnia

Subtaxa: Adytaster Aphelaster Douvillaster Enallaster Enallopneustes Heteraster Isaster Macraster Mokotibaster Polydesmaster Toxaster

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Ecology: slow-moving shallow infaunal deposit feeder-detritivore

Distribution:

• Paleocene of Austria (1 collection), Turkey (1)

• Cretaceous of Algeria (6), China (1), Colombia (1), Egypt (5), France (132), Hungary (1), Japan (1), Madagascar (5), Mexico (8), Morocco (5), Mozambique (2), New Zealand (1), Peru (12), Portugal (33), Serbia and Montenegro (1), Spain (8), Switzerland (22), Turkmenistan (1), the United Kingdom (9), United States (2: Texas), Yemen (1)

Total: 259 collections including 300 occurrences

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