Equus Linnaeus 1758 (horse)

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

The genus Equus includes many extinct species in addition to the living domestic horse, zebras, and asses. It originated in North America and emigrated to the Old World during the Pliocene. In the 1920s a spectacular mass mortality assemblage of the primitive species Equus simplicidens was found at the Gidley Horse Quarry in Idaho. Before the end-Pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction several species of horses lived in North America. Pleistocene horses fossils are very common, but their taxonomy is still poorly resolved because many of the older species names were based on poor type specimens.

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Synonyms: Allozebra Trumler 1961, Asinus Gray 1822, Equus (Asinus) Gray 1822, Equus (Plesippus) Matthew 1924, Kolpohippus van Hoepen 1930, Kraterohippus van Hoepen 1930, Neohippus Abel 1913, Onager Brisson 1762, Plesippus Matthew 1924, Sterrohippus van Hopen 1930

Full reference: C. Linnaeus. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Editio Decima 1:1-824

Parent taxon: Equini according to B. J. MacFadden 1998

See also Alroy 2002, Capasso Barbato and Gliozzi 1995, Carroll 1988, Cisneros 2005, Cope 1881, Eshelman et al. 2018, Forsten and Eisenmann 1995, Galusha et al. 1984, Gidley 1907, Gray 1825, Hibbard 1955, Hibbard and Riggs 1949, Kelly 1995, Kelly 1997, Kurten and Anderson 1980, Leidy 1860, Linnaeus 1758, MacFadden and Waldrop 1980, McGrew 1944, Mooser 1958, Mooser and Dalquest 1975, Osborn 1929, Owen 1848, Prado and Alberdi 1996, Prothero and Schoch 1989, Quinn 1955, Quinn 1957, Repenning et al. 1995, Rincón et al. 2006, Salles et al. 2006, Schneider 1926, Schultz 1938, Schultz 1990, Schultz and Howard 1935, Shotwell 1961, Shotwell 1970, Skinner and Hibbard 1972, Stirton 1940, Thurmond and Jones 1981 and Winans 1989

Sister taxa: Astrohippus, Boreohippidion, Calippus, Dinohippus, Haringtonhippus, Heteropliohippus, Hippidion, Parapliohippus, Pliohippina, Pliohippus, Protohippina, Protohippus

Subtaxa: Asinus africanus Equus (Amerhippus) Equus (Asinus) kiang Equus (Dolichohippus) Equus (Hemionus) Equus (Hesperohippus) Equus (Hippotigris) Equus (Plesippus) crenidens Equus (Sussemionus) Equus africanus Equus alaskae Equus asinus Equus australis Equus caballus Equus calobatus Equus capensis Equus coliemensis Equus complicatus Equus conversidens Equus curvidens Equus excelsus Equus fraternus Equus fromanius Equus giganteus Equus hatcheri Equus holmesi Equus idahoensis Equus intermedius Equus jubatus Equus laurentius Equus leidyi Equus mexicanus Equus nalaikhaensis Equus nearcticus Equus nevadanus Equus niobrarensis Equus nobisi Equus pacificus Equus parastylidens Equus pectinatus Equus przewalskii Equus pseudaltidens Equus quagga Equus santaeelenae Equus scotti Equus semiplicatus Equus stenonis Equus tabeti Equus taeniopus Equus yunnanensis Equus zebra Onager onager Plesippus francescana

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Ecology: ground dwelling grazer

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Algeria (2 collections), Argentina (15), Austria (1), Azerbaijan (1), Belgium (1), Bolivia (7), Brazil (11), Canada (31: Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Chile (4), China (8), the Congo-Kinshasa (4), Costa Rica (1), Croatia (1), the Czech Republic (2), Djibouti (4), Ecuador (15), Egypt (16), El Salvador (2), Eritrea (2), Ethiopia (54), France (29), Georgia (3), Germany (29), Greece (14), Guatemala (2), Honduras (1), Hungary (6), India (16), Israel (5), Italy (38), Kazakhstan (3), Kenya (63), Kyrgyzstan (1), Libya (4), Malta (1), Mexico (23), Monaco (2), Mongolia (1), Morocco (10), Namibia (1), the Netherlands (6), Nicaragua (3), Pakistan (2), Panama (1), Peru (10), Portugal (1), Romania (18), the Russian Federation (12), Saudi Arabia (2), South Africa (50), Spain (31), Sudan (5), Swaziland (1), Syria (2), Taiwan (1), Tajikistan (3), Tanzania (37), Turkey (3), Turkmenistan (1), the United Kingdom (13), United States (407: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wyoming), Uzbekistan (1), Venezuela (3), Zambia (4)

• Blancan of Mexico (12), United States (192: Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Washington)

• Pliocene to Holocene of Malawi (1), Uganda (1)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of Bulgaria (1), the Congo-Kinshasa (1), Costa Rica (1), Ethiopia (6), France (2), Greece (6), India (1), Italy (4), Kenya (29), Malawi (2), Nepal (1), the Russian Federation (1), South Africa (4), Spain (2), Tajikistan (1), Turkey (1)

• Pliocene of Chile (1), France (1), Georgia (1), Greece (6), Hungary (5), India (4), Italy (2), Kazakhstan (1), Mexico (1), Romania (5), the Russian Federation (4), South Africa (2), Spain (8), Tajikistan (5), Ukraine (1), United States (3: California, Texas)

• Baodean of China (1)

• Miocene to Pliocene of South Africa (4)

• Miocene to Pleistocene of the Netherlands (1), South Africa (1), United States (1: Massachusetts)

• Miocene of Ukraine (1), United States (1: Nebraska)

Total: 1380 collections including 1676 occurrences

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Specimen images are retrieved through the ePANDDA API.


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