Equus Linnaeus 1758 (horse)

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

The genus Equus includes many extinct species in addition to the living domestic horse, zebras, and asses. It originated in North America and emigrated to the Old World during the Pliocene. In the 1920s a spectacular mass mortality assemblage of the primitive species Equus simplicidens was found at the Gidley Horse Quarry in Idaho. Before the end-Pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction several species of horses lived in North America. Pleistocene horses fossils are very common, but their taxonomy is still poorly resolved because many of the older species names were based on poor type specimens.

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Synonyms: Allozebra Trumler 1961, Asinus Gray 1822, Equus (Asinus) Gray 1822, Haringtonhippus Heintzman et al. 2017, Kolpohippus van Hoepen 1930, Kraterohippus van Hoepen 1930, Neohippus Abel 1913, Onager Brisson 1762, Sterrohippus van Hopen 1930, Tomolabis Cope 1892

Full reference: C. Linnaeus. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Editio Decima 1:1-824

Parent taxon: Equini according to P. D. Heintzman et al. 2017

See also Alberdi et al. 2014, Alroy 2002, Barrón-Ortiz et al. 2019, Capasso Barbato and Gliozzi 1995, Carroll 1988, Cisneros 2005, Cope 1881, Eshelman et al. 2018, Gidley 1907, Gray 1825, Hay 1902, Hibbard 1955, Kelly 1995, Kurten and Anderson 1980, Leidy 1860, Leidy 1873, Linnaeus 1758, MacFadden 1998, Mooser and Dalquest 1975, Osborn 1929, Owen 1848, Prado and Alberdi 1996, Prothero and Schoch 1989, Quinn 1955, Quinn 1957, Rincón et al. 2006, Salles et al. 2006, Schneider 1926, Schultz 1938, Schultz and Howard 1935, Stirton 1940 and Thurmond and Jones 1981

Sister taxa: Allohippus, Astrohippus, Boreohippidion, Calippus, Dinohippus, Heteropliohippus, Hippidion, Parapliohippus, Plesippus, Pliohippina, Pliohippus, Protohippina, Protohippus

Subtaxa: Asinus africanus Equus (Amerhippus) Equus (Asinus) kiang Equus (Dolichohippus) Equus (Hemionus) Equus (Hesperohippus) Equus (Hippotigris) Equus (Sussemionus) Equus africanus Equus alaskae Equus asinus Equus australis Equus caballus Equus calobatus Equus capensis Equus cedralensis Equus coliemensis Equus complicatus Equus conversidens Equus excelsus Equus francisci Equus fraternus Equus fromanius Equus giganteus Equus hatcheri Equus holmesi Equus intermedius Equus jubatus Equus laurentius Equus leidyi Equus major Equus mexicanus Equus nalaikhaensis Equus nevadanus Equus niobrarensis Equus nobisi Equus pacificus Equus parastylidens Equus pectinatus Equus przewalskii Equus pseudaltidens Equus quagga Equus santaeelenae Equus scotti Equus semiplicatus Equus tabeti Equus taeniopus Equus yunnanensis Equus zebra Hippotherium princeps Onager onager

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Type: Equus caballus

Ecology: ground dwelling grazer

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Algeria (2 collections), Argentina (22), Austria (1), Azerbaijan (1), Belgium (1), Bolivia (7), Brazil (12), Canada (31: Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Chile (4), China (8), the Congo-Kinshasa (4), Costa Rica (1), the Czech Republic (2), Djibouti (4), Ecuador (15), Egypt (16), El Salvador (3), Eritrea (2), Ethiopia (54), France (21), Georgia (2), Germany (29), Greece (20), Guatemala (2), Honduras (1), Hungary (5), India (16), Israel (5), Italy (31), Kazakhstan (2), Kenya (63), Kyrgyzstan (1), Libya (4), Malta (1), Mexico (22), Monaco (2), Mongolia (1), Morocco (10), Namibia (1), the Netherlands (6), Nicaragua (2), Pakistan (2), Panama (1), Peru (10), Portugal (1), Romania (15), the Russian Federation (11), Saudi Arabia (2), South Africa (50), Spain (29), Sudan (6), Swaziland (1), Syria (2), Taiwan (1), Tajikistan (3), Tanzania (37), Turkey (2), Turkmenistan (1), the United Kingdom (11), United States (410: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wyoming), Uzbekistan (1), Venezuela (3), Zambia (4)

• Blancan of Mexico (5), United States (126: Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas)

• Pliocene to Holocene of Malawi (1), Uganda (1)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of the Congo-Kinshasa (1), Costa Rica (1), Ethiopia (6), France (1), India (1), Italy (3), Kenya (29), Malawi (2), Nepal (1), the Russian Federation (1), South Africa (5)

• Pliocene of Chile (1), France (1), Greece (4), Hungary (3), India (4), Italy (1), Mexico (1), Romania (5), the Russian Federation (1), South Africa (2), Tajikistan (2), Ukraine (1), United States (4: California, Texas)

• Baodean of China (1)

• Miocene to Pliocene of South Africa (4)

• Miocene to Pleistocene of the Netherlands (1), South Africa (1), United States (1: Massachusetts)

• Neogene of Argentina (1)

• Miocene of Ukraine (1), United States (1: Nebraska)

Total: 1265 collections including 1511 occurrences

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Specimen images are retrieved through the ePANDDA API.


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