Family Littorinidae Gray 1840 (periwinkle)

Gastropoda - Littorinoidea - Littorinidae

Synonym: Lacunidae Gray 1857

Parent taxon: Littorinoidea according to P. Bouchet et al. 2005

See also Beesley 1998, Harzhauser 2004, Harzhauser 2007, Jeffery 2003, Marquet 1997, Martin 1904, Ponder and Warén 1988, Todd 2001 and Ward and Blackwelder 1987

Sister taxa: none

Subtaxa: Cenchritis Dissochilus Echinininae Echinolittorina Eulimene Gouetina Hallstadtia Heterospira Lacuninae Laevilitorina Laevilitorininae Littoraria Littorina Littorininae Melarhaphe Mirolacuna Neritrema Nodilittorina Peasiella Praelittorina Procancellaria Risella Risellopsis Rissellinae Tectariinae Tectarius

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Ecology: epifaunal grazer

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Argentina (3 collections), Australia (5), Belgium (1), Bermuda (2), Canada (8: British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nunavut, Quebec), Chile (1), Cuba (1), Ecuador (1), France (1), French Polynesia (1), Greenland (2), Iceland (3), Ireland (1), Italy (2), Jamaica (1), Japan (2), Mexico (19), Morocco (5), the Netherlands (4), Panama (2), Portugal (14), Saudi Arabia (1), the Seychelles (1), South Africa (7), Spain (7), the United Kingdom (11), United States (53: Alaska, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Virginia), Uruguay (1)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of Malaysia (1), South Africa (2), United States (4: Florida, Oregon)

• Pliocene of Australia (1), Belgium (2), Ecuador (1), Jamaica (1), Japan (3), Papua New Guinea (1), the United Kingdom (2), United States (10: California, Florida, North Carolina), Vanuatu (1), Venezuela (1)

• Miocene of Algeria (2), Argentina (2), Australia (3), Brazil (1), Chile (1), France (1), Germany (1), Japan (1), the Marshall Islands (2), Panama (1), Poland (1), the Russian Federation (1), South Africa (1), Turkey (1), United States (1: Delaware)

• Oligocene of France (1), Germany (1), Iran (1), Oman (1)

• Eocene of Egypt (1), France (8), Indonesia (1), the United Kingdom (4), United States (4: Texas)

• Paleocene of Belgium (1), Denmark (4), Greenland (1), Poland (2), United States (1: Maryland)

• Cretaceous of New Zealand (18), the United Kingdom (1), United States (1: Tennessee)

• Jurassic of France (5), Poland (1), the United Kingdom (12)

• Triassic of Italy (2), United States (1: Idaho)

Total: 282 collections including 368 occurrences

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