Metaxytherium medium Desmarest 1822 (dugong)

Mammalia - Sirenia - Dugongidae

Alternative combination: Hippopotamus medius

Synonyms: Halianassa cordieri de Christol in de Blainville 1844, Halianassa cuvieri de Christol 1832, Halicore cuvieri de Christol 1832, Halicore cuvierii de Christol 1832, Halitherium cordieri de Christol in de Blainville 1844, Halitherium cuvieri de Christol 1832, Halitherium fossile Holl 1829, Haplosiren leganyii Kretzoi 1951, Hippopotamus intermedius Holl 1829, Manatus cuvieri de Christol 1832, Manatus fossilis Holl 1829, Metaxitherium cordieri de Christol in de Blainville 1844, Metaxytherium catalaunicum Pilleri et al. 1989, Metaxytherium cordieri de Christol in de Blainville 1844, Metaxytherium cuvieri de Christol 1832, Metaxytherium cuvierii de Christol 1832, Metaxytherium fossile Holl 1829, Metaxytherium petersi Abel 1904, Thalattosiren petersi Abel 1904

Full reference: A. G. Desmarest. 1822. Mammalogie ou description des especes de mammiferes. Second partie, contenant les orders des rongeurs, des edentes, des pachydermes, des ruminans et des cetaces 277-556

Belongs to Metaxytherium according to M. Voss 2014

See also Abel 1904, Bronn 1853, Desmarest 1822, Domning 1994, Domning 1996, Domning 2008, Domning and Pervesler 2012, Fondi and Pacini 1974, Heal 1973, Kaup 1840, Kretzoi 1951, Lydekker 1887, Pilleri et al. 1989, Sickenberg 1928, Trouessart 1898, Trouessart 1904, Woodward 1885 and Zittel 1925

Sister taxa: Felsinotherium gunteri, Metaxytherium albifontanum, Metaxytherium aquitaniae, Metaxytherium arctodites, Metaxytherium beaumontii, Metaxytherium crataegense, Metaxytherium floridanum, Metaxytherium krahuletzi, Metaxytherium lovisati, Metaxytherium meyeri, Metaxytherium riveroi, Metaxytherium serresii, Metaxytherium subapenninum

Type specimens:

  • Metaxytherium medium: MNHN Fs 2706, a mandible (partial left mandible with M2-3). Its type locality is Baltringen, which is in a Burdigalian marine horizon in Germany.
  • Halitherium cuvieri:
  • Haplosiren leganyii: FIV 6001. Its type locality is Matrozollos, which is in a Tortonian marine horizon in Hungary.
  • Hippopotamus intermedius:
  • Manatus fossilis:
  • Metaxytherium catalaunicum: 1210 Museum Comarcal, a skull. Its type locality is Olerdola, which is in a Burdigalian/Langhian marine horizon in Spain.
  • Metaxytherium cordieri:
  • Metaxytherium petersi: destroyed, a skeleton (skeleton lacking skull). Its type locality is Hainburg An Der Donau, which is in a Serravallian marine sandstone in Austria.

Ecology: aquatic herbivore


• Miocene of Austria (4 collections), France (14), Germany (2), Greece (13), Italy (7), the Netherlands (1)

Total: 41 collections each including a single occurrence

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Specimen images are retrieved through the ePANDDA API.

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