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Dinosauria (dinosaur)

Reptilia -

Dinosauria was named by Owen (1842). It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Nesbitt (2011).

It was reranked as the order Dinosaurii by Bonaparte (1850); it was reranked as the subclass Dinosauria by Haeckel (1866), Marsh (1884) and Bakker (1986); it was corrected as Dinosauria by Cope (1870) and Huxley (1870); it was reranked as the superorder Dinosauria by Baur (1887), Osborn (1904), Nopcsa (1923) and Nopcsa (1928); it was reranked as the order Dinosauri by Jaekel (1910); it was reranked as the class Dinosauria by Bakker and Galton (1974); it was misspelled as Deinosauria by Mantell (1854), Owen (1855), Owen (1861), Cope (1871), Cope (1875), Marsh (1885), Günther (1886), Lydekker (1888), Cope (1889), Zittel (1890), Cope (1891), Marsh (1896), Woodward (1898), Cope (1898), Hay (1902), Osborn (1903), Hatcher (1903), Lambe (1905), Broom (1909), von Zittel (1911), Tornier (1913), Broom (1913), Lull (1915), Lull (1917), Swinton (1934), Cooper (1981), Long and Murry (1995) and Peng et al. (2001); it was reranked as the unranked clade Dinosauria by Gardiner (1982), Gauthier and Padian (1985), Gauthier (1986), Brinkman and Sues (1987), Gauthier et al. (1989), Benton (1990), Sereno (1991), Novas (1992), Novas (1996), Fraser et al. (2002), Irmis (2005), Ezcurra (2006), Irmis et al. (2007) and Nesbitt (2011).

It was assigned to Rhizodonta by Bonaparte (1850); to Ornithoscelida by Huxley (1870); to Sauropsida by Baur (1887); to Diapsida by Osborn (1903), Osborn (1904), Lambe (1905) and Broom (1909); to Hyperosauria by Jaekel (1910); to Daptosauria by Broom (1913); to Reptilia by Owen (1842), Mantell (1854), Owen (1855), Owen (1861), Haeckel (1866), Cope (1871), Cope (1875), Marsh (1884), Marsh (1885), Günther (1886), Cope (1889), Zittel (1890), Cope (1891), Marsh (1896), Woodward (1898), Cope (1898), Hay (1902), Hatcher (1903), von Zittel (1911), Tornier (1913), Lull (1915), Lull (1917), Nopcsa (1923) and Swinton (1934); to Amniota by Bakker and Galton (1974); to Archosauria by Gardiner (1982); to Ornithosuchia by Gauthier and Padian (1985); to Archosauria by Bakker (1986); to Archosauria by Nopcsa (1928) and Brinkman and Sues (1987); to Ornithosuchia by Gauthier et al. (1989); to Ornithodira by Gauthier (1986) and Benton (1990); to Dinosauromorpha by Sereno (1991); to Archosauria by Cope (1870), Lydekker (1888), Cooper (1981) and Peng et al. (2001); and to Dinosauriformes by Novas (1992), Long and Murry (1995), Novas (1996), Fraser et al. (2002), Irmis (2005), Ezcurra (2006), Irmis et al. (2007) and Nesbitt (2011).

Sister taxa
Harpagosauria, Opisthocoelia (syn. Cetiosauria), Therosauria

View classification of included taxa

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1842Dinosauria Owen p. 102–103
1845Pachypodes Meyer p. 281
1850Dinosaurii Bonaparte
1854Deinosauria Mantell p. 646
1855Dinosauria Owen p. 1
1861Dinosauria Owen p. 285
1866Dinosauria Haeckel p. CXXXV
1870Ornithoscelida Bunzel p. 394
1870Dinosauria Cope pp. 32-33
1870Dinosauria Huxley p. 34
1870Ornithoscelida Huxley pp. 35-37
1871Dinosauria Cope p. 234
1875Dinosauria Cope p. 13
1878Ornithoscelida Williston p. 45
1884Dinosauria Marsh p. 68
1885Dinosauria Marsh p. 763
1886Dinosauria Günther p. 442
1887Dinosauria Baur p. 101
1888Dinosauria Lydekker p. 131
1889Dinosauria Cope p. 15
1890Dinosauria Zittel p. 450
1891Dinosauria Cope p. 35
1896Dinosauria Marsh p. 238
1898Dinosauria Cope p. 68
1898Dinosauria Woodward p. 141
1902Dinosauria Hay p. 481
1903Dinosauria Hatcher p. 54
1903Dinosauria Osborn p. 276
1904Dinosauria Osborn p. 113
1905Dinosauria Lambe p. 48
1909Dinosauria Broom p. 289
1910Dinosauri Jaekel p. 338
1911Dinosauria von Zittel p. 273
1913Dinosauria Broom p. 364
1913Dinosauria Tornier p. 366
1915Dinosauria Lull p. 117
1917Dinosauria Lull p. 114
1923Dinosauria Nopcsa p. 125
1928Dinosauria Nopcsa p. 182
1934Dinosauria Swinton p. 29
1957Astrodon pusillus Lapparent and Zbyszewski p. 44
1958Sinoichnites Kuhn p. 24
1958Sinoichnites youngi Kuhn p. 24
1960Sinoichnites youngi Young p. 53
1960Sinoichnites Young p. 65
1962Astrodon pusillus Kingham p. 40
1963Sinoichnites Kuhn p. 101
1963Sinoichnites youngi Kuhn p. 101
1970Sinoichnites youngi Sarjeant p. 277
1970Astrodon pusillus Steel p. 67
1971Sinoichnites Haubold p. 86
1971Sinoichnites youngi Haubold p. 86
1974Dinosauria Bakker and Galton p. 171
1974Elephantopoides Kaever and Lapparent p. 524
1974Elephantopoides barkhausensis Kaever and Lapparent p. 524
1976Neosauropus Antunes p. 20
1976Neosauropus lagosteirensis Antunes p. 20
1981Dinosauria Cooper p. 694
1982Dinosauria Gardiner p. 229
1984Gigantosauropus Mensink and Mertmann
1984Gigantosauropus asturiensis Mensink and Mertmann
1985Dinosauria Gauthier and Padian pp. 187-189 fig. 1
1986Dinosauria Bakker p. 472
1986Dinosauria Gauthier p. 54 fig. 8
1986Elephantopoides barkhausensis Lockley et al. p. 1170
1986Neosauropus lagosteirensis Lockley et al. p. 1170
1986Sinoichnites youngi Zhen p. 27
1987Dinosauria Brinkman and Sues p. 494
1987Mirsosauropus Dzhalilov and Novikov
1987Mirsosauropus tursunzadevi Dzhalilov and Novikov
1987Huanglongpus shengouensis Yang and Yang p. 23 fig. 19
1987Huanlongpus Yang and Yang p. 23
1989Dinosauria Gauthier et al. p. 346
1989Sinoichnites Zhen et al. p. 194
1989Sinoichnites youngi Zhen et al. p. 194
1990Dinosauria Benton p. 13
1991Sauropodichnus Calvo p. 249
1991Dinosauria Sereno p. 23
1992Eudinosauria Novas pp. 59-60 fig. 6
1992Dinosauria Novas p. 134
1993Yunnanpus Chen and Huang
1995Dinosauria Long and Murry p. 171
1996Dinosauria Novas p. 737 fig. 10
1998Camposaurus arizonensis Hunt et al. p. 515 fig. 2
1998Sinoichnites youngi Lockley and Matsukawa p. 136
1999Teyuwasu barberenai Kischlat
2001Dinosauria Peng et al. p. 33
2002Dinosauria Fraser et al. p. 92 fig. 9
2004Sauropodichnus Calvo and Mazzetta p. 546
2004Camposaurus arizonensis Tykoski and Rowe p. 48
2005Dinosauria Irmis p. 81
2006Dinosauria Ezcurra p. 657 fig. 3
2007Sauropodichnus Calvo p. 328
2007Sauropodichnus González Riga and Calvo p. 177
2007Dinosauria Irmis et al. p. 361 fig. 3
2007Camposaurus arizonensis Spielmann et al. p. 385
2009Sinoichnites Xing et al. p. 831
2009Sinoichnites youngi Xing et al. p. 831
2010Teyuwasu barberenai Langer et al. p. 75
2011Elephantopoides Diedrich p. 136
2011Elephantopoides barkhausenensis Diedrich p. 136
2011Sauropodichnus González Riga p. 279
2011Dinosauria Nesbitt p. 210 fig. 52
2012Sinoichnites youngi Li et al. pp. 5-6
2015Camposaurus arizonensis Nesbitt and Ezcurra p. 514
2016Camposaurus arizonensis Martill et al. p. 10

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

R. Owen 1855Cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae with parapophyses and diapophyses; dorsal vertebrae with a neural platform; sacral vertebrae exceeding two in number; body supported on four well-developed unguiculate limbs.
R. Owen 1861Cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae with par- and di-apophyses, articulating with bifurcate ribs; dorsal vertebrae with a neural platform, sacral vertebrae exceeding two in number; body supported on four strong unguiculate limbs.
T. H. Huxley 18701. The dorsal vertebræ have amphicœlous or opisthocœlous centra. They are provided with capitular and tubercular transverse processes, the latter being much the longer.
2. The number of the vertebræ which enter into the sacrum does not fall below two, and may be as many as six.
3. The chevron bones are attached intervertebrally, and their rami are united at their vertebral ends by a bar of bone.
4. The anterior vertebral ribs have distinct capitula and tubercula.
5. The skull is modelled upon the Lacertilian, not on the Crocodilian type. There is a bony sclerotic ring.
6. The teeth are not ankylosed to the jaws, and may be lodged in distinct sockets. They appear to be present only in the præmaxillæ, maxillæ, and dentary portions of the mandible.
7. The scapula is vertically elongated; the coracoid is short, and has a rounded and undivided margin. There is no clavicle.
8. The crest of the ilium is prolonged both in front of and behind the acetabulum; and the part which roofs over the latter cavity forms a wide arch, the inner wall of the acetabulum having been formed by membrane, as in birds.
9. The ischium and pubis are much elongated.
10. The femur has a strong inner trochanter; and there is a crest on the ventral face of the outer condyle, which passes between the tibia and the fibula, as in birds.
11. The tibia is shorter than the femur. Its proximal end is produced anteriorly into a strong crest, which is bent outwardly, or towards the fibular side.
12. The astragalus is like that of a bird; and the digits of the pes are terminated by strong and curved ungual phalanges.
E. D. Cope 1870Limbs ambulatory or prehensile. Ilium horizontal,supporting a long sacrum of five or six vertebrae the anterior derived from the lumbar series. The acetabulum thrown forwards, and not complete,but perforate. Ischium long longitudinal, posterior, supporting the pubis in front on a process. Ribs free, double headed. Neural arches united by suture; chevron bones present.
K. A. v. Zittel 1890Körper eidechsenartig oder vogelähnlich, lang geschwänzt, meist von ansehnlicher, zuweilen sogar von gigantischer Grösse. Wirbel cavernös, hohl oder massiv; opisthocöl, platycöl oder amphicöl. Sacrum in der Regel aus drei bis sechs (ausnahmsweise aus zwei oder mehr als sechs) Wirbeln bestehend. Rumpfrippen zweiköpfig. Bauchrippen zuweilen vorhanden. Zwischenkiefer getrennt. Quadratbein unbeweglich , stark vorragend. Obere und seitliche Schläfengruben knöchern umgrenzt. Zähne mit zusammengedrückter, vorn und hinten mehr oder weniger zugeschärfter Krone, in Alveolen oder Alveolarrinnen eingefügt. Brustbein unvollständig verknöchert. Scapula sehr gross, Coracoid klein, scheibenförmig, ohne Procoracoid. Ileum nach vorn und hinten verlängert. Sitzbeine lang, schlank, in der Symphyse verbunden. Pubis nach vorn gerichtet, zuweilen mit einem dünnen, nach hinten gewendetem, dem Ischium parallelen Postpubis. Vorderbeine kürzer als Hinterbeine. Zehen mit Krallen oder Hufen. Die langen Knochen solid oder hohl. Haut nackt oder mit einem aus knöchernen Platten oder Stacheln bestehenden Panzer.
B. F. Nopcsa 1928Long necked, originally bipedal Archosauria with numerous cervicals, with thecodont teeth, with prelacrymal fossa, reduced scapular arch and without humeral foramina; upper part of ilium expanded at both ends, ventral pelvic elements more or less elongated; acetabulum perforated; pineal foramen never present.
S. J. Nesbitt 2011The least inclusive clade containing Triceratops horridus (Marsh, 1889) and Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 100000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 300 gg
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Created: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Modified: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Source: g = genus, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Kiessling 2004, Peczkis 1995, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Kungurian to the top of the Holocene or 279.30000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 272.3 Ma

Collections (10800 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Kungurian279.3 - 272.3Russian Federation Sylvia sp. 1 (30384)
Changhsingian254.17 - 252.17Russian Federation (Orenburg) Brontopus giganteus (196927)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2United Kingdom (England) Coelurosaurichnus sp. A, Coelurosaurichnus sp. B, Coelurosaurichnus ziegelangernensis (184045)
Early/Lower Triassic - Middle Triassic252.17 - 237.0Germany (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Sphingopus ferox (192151)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2USA (Utah) Grallator sp., Eubrontes sp. (105542)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Germany Thecodontosaurus latespinatus (137641)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Germany (Saxony-Anhalt) Theropoda indet. (138123)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Tanzania (Ruvuma) Prestosuchidae indet. (136890) Thecodontosaurus alophos (136891)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0United Kingdom (England) Deuterotetrapous plancus (186039) Swinnertonichnus mapperleyensis (83053)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Poland (Opole) Thecodontosaurus primus, Zanclodon silesiacus (96435)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Poland (Swietoryzskie) Sphingopus sp. (175801)
Illyrian247.2 - 242.0Italy (Bolzano) Sphingopus ladinicus (196816)
Anisian - Ladinian247.2 - 237.0France (Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Anchisauripus sp., Anchisauripus bibractensis (68226) Sphingopus sp., Sphingopus ferox, Dinosauria indet., Dinosauria indet. (24834)
Anisian - Ladinian247.2 - 237.0France (Saône-et-Loire) Anchisauripus bibractensis (62183) Coelurosaurichnus palissyi (68223) Coelurosaurichnus perriauxi, Anchisauripus bibractensis (62182) Coelurosaurichnus perriauxi, Sphingopus ferox, Anchisauripus sp. (28462) Coelurosaurichnus sp., Coelurosaurichnus palyssii (36226) Sphingopus sp., Anchisauripus bibractensis, Coelurosaurichnus palissyi (68222)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0France (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Anchisauripus sp., Coelurosaurichnus sp., Sphingopus ferox (31310)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0Germany (Baden-Württemberg) Thecodontosaurus latespinatus, Procerosaurus cruralis (187582)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0Argentina (Mendoza) Tetrasauropus sp. (59670)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0France (Saône-et-Loire) Anchisauripus bibractensis, Sphingopus ferox, Coelurosaurichnus perriauxi (28092) Coelurosaurichnus perriauxi, Anchisauripus bibractensis (68906)
Ladinian242.0 - 237.0Argentina (La Rioja) Dinosauria indet., Dinosauriformes indet. (59669)
Ladinian242.0 - 237.0France (Lorraine) Thecodontosaurus latespinatus (137680)