Order Gasterosteiformes (ray-finned fish)

Actinopteri - Gasterosteiformes

Parent taxon: Percomorpha according to J. A. Long 2011

See also Nelson 2006, Sepkoski 2002 and Zalohar et al. 2009

Sister taxa: Dactylopteriformes, Kelemejtubus, Stephanoberyciformes

Subtaxa: Aulorhynchus Centriscidae Gasterorhamphosus Gasterosteus Macrorhamphosidae Nerophis Protorhamphosus Solenostomus Urosphenopsis

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Ecology: nektonic carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Canada (1: Newfoundland and Labrador collection), the United Kingdom (2), United States (2: California)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of Italy (1)

• Pliocene of Cyprus (1), Italy (2)

• Hemphillian of United States (1: Nevada)

• Miocene of United States (1: California)

• Oligocene of Germany (2), Poland (1), Romania (1)

• Eocene of Germany (1), Italy (1)

• Paleocene of Turkmenistan (1)

Total: 18 collections including 23 occurrences

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