Order Sphenisciformes Sharpe 1891 (penguin)

Aves - Sphenisciformes

Parent taxon: Carinatae according to H. Gadow 1898

See also Baird 1992, Carroll 1988, Clarke et al. 2007, Clarke et al. 2003, Fordyce and Thomas 2011, Jadwiszczak 2006, Jadwiszczak 2006, Jadwiszczak 2012, Ksepka and Clarke 2010, Livezey and Zusi 2007, Myrcha et al. 2002, Park and Fitzgerald 2012, Sepkoski 2002 and Slack et al. 2006

Sister taxa: Colymbiformes, Crateropteryx, Odontotormae, Tubinares

Subtaxa: Anthropornis Aprosdokitos Archaeospheniscus Delphinornis Duntroonornis Icadyptes Inkayacu Kaiika Kairuku Korora Kumimanu Marambiornis Mesetaornis Muriwaimanu Pachydyptes Palaeospheniscinae Paraptenodytinae Perudyptes Platydyptes Sequiwaimanu Spheniscidae Tonniornis Waimanu Wimanornis

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Ecology: ground dwelling carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Antarctica (3 collections), Australia (5), New Zealand (18), South Africa (5)

• Pliocene of Chile (3), New Zealand (3), South Africa (6)

• Miocene to Pliocene of Australia (1), Chile (2), South Africa (1)

• Miocene of Antarctica (1), Argentina (12), Australia (5), Chile (4), Peru (8), South Africa (1)

• Waitakian of New Zealand (3)

• Oligocene to Miocene of Antarctica (5), Peru (1)

• Oligocene of Australia (1), New Zealand (12)

• Whaingaroan of New Zealand (6)

• Eocene to Oligocene of Antarctica (1)

• Eocene of Antarctica (24), Argentina (1), Australia (2), Chile (3), New Zealand (6), Peru (4)

• Paleocene of Antarctica (1), New Zealand (9)

Total: 157 collections including 287 occurrences

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