Family Spheniscidae Bonaparte 1831 (penguin)

Aves - Sphenisciformes - Spheniscidae

Parent taxon: Sphenisciformes according to J. F. Clements et al. 2017

See also Acosta Hospitaleche 2007, Acosta Hospitaleche 2014, Acosta Hospitaleche et al. 2008, Acosta Hospitaleche et al. 2006, Acosta Hospitaleche and Reguero 2010, Acosta Hospitaleche and Stucchi 2005, Acosta Hospitaleche et al. 2004, Acosta Hospitaleche et al. 2007, Acosta Hospitaleche and Tambussi 2008, Ameghino 1905, Baird 1992, Brodkorb 1963, Carroll 1988, Cheneval 1993, Clarke et al. 2003, Gohlich 2007, Jadwiszczak 2006, Jadwiszczak 2012, Jadwiszczak et al. 2013, Jadwiszczak and Mörs 2011, Jenkins 1974, Jenkins 1985, Lambrecht 1933, Livezey and Zusi 2007, Mayr 2005, Mayr 2011, Moreno and Mercerat 1891, Myrcha et al. 2002, Olson 1985, Park 2014, Park and Fitzgerald 2012, Simpson 1971, Simpson 1971, Simpson 1979, Simpson 1981, Stucchi et al. 2003, Tambussi et al. 2006, Tambussi et al. 2005 and Walsh and Suarez 2006

Sister taxa: Anthropornis, Aprosdokitos, Archaeospheniscus, Delphinornis, Duntroonornis, Icadyptes, Inkayacu, Kaiika, Kairuku, Korora, Kumimanu, Marambiornis, Mesetaornis, Muriwaimanu, Pachydyptes, Palaeospheniscinae, Paraptenodytinae, Perudyptes, Platydyptes, Sequiwaimanu, Tonniornis, Waimanu, Wimanornis

Subtaxa: Anthropodyptes Anthropornithinae Aptenodytes Apterodytes ictus Arthrodytes Crossvallia Dege Delphinornis gracilis Eudyptes Eudyptula Ichtyopteryx Inguza Madrynornis Marplesornis Megadyptes Neculus Nucleornis Orthopteryx Orthopteryx gigas Palaeeudyptes Palaeeudyptinae Palaeoapterodytes Paraptenodytes Pseudaptenodytes Pygoscelis Spheniscinae Spheniscus Tereingaornis

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Ecology: ground dwelling carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Antarctica (3 collections), Australia (5), New Zealand (18), South Africa (5)

• Pliocene of Chile (3), New Zealand (3), South Africa (5)

• Miocene to Pliocene of Chile (2), South Africa (1)

• Miocene of Antarctica (1), Argentina (9), Australia (5), Chile (4), Peru (8), South Africa (1)

• Waitakian of New Zealand (2)

• Oligocene to Miocene of Antarctica (3)

• Oligocene of Australia (1), New Zealand (3)

• Whaingaroan of New Zealand (4)

• Eocene to Oligocene of Antarctica (1)

• Eocene of Antarctica (18), Argentina (1), Australia (1), Chile (3), New Zealand (1), Peru (1)

• Paleocene of Antarctica (1), New Zealand (1)

Total: 114 collections including 173 occurrences

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