Family Epitoniidae Berry 1910 (wentletrap)

Gastropoda - Epitonioidea - Epitoniidae

Synonym: Scalidae Adams and A. 1853

Parent taxon: Epitonioidea according to C. S. Cataldo 2017

See also Addicott 1970, Allison 1955, Beesley 1998, Bouchet et al. 2005, Bouchet et al. 2017, Duerr 2004, Harris and Palmer 1947, Harzhauser 2002, Hickman 1980, Landau and Marques da Silva 2010, Martin 1904, Ponder and Warén 1988, Rivera 1957, Sohl 1964, Squires 1984, Squires and Saul 2003, Todd 2001, Turner 1938, Ward and Blackwelder 1987 and Wienrich 2001

Sister taxa: Janthinidae, Nystiellidae, Scalacea, Epitoniacea

Subtaxa: Aciculiscala Acirsa Acirsinae Acrilla Alora Amaea Australolaxispira Belliscala Cerithiscala Cirsotrema Clathroscala Clathrus Claviscala Confusiscala Crossotrema Dannevigena Eglisia Epitomium Epitoniinae Epitonium Filiscala Funis Gregorioiscala Gryoscala Littoriniscala Mazescala Murdochella Narvaliscala Notacirsa Nystiellinae Opalia Opaliinae Papuliscala Pliciscala Problitora Scalaria Scalina Sthenorytis Turriscala Variciscala

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Ecology: slow-moving low-level epifaunal carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Australia (2 collections), the Bahamas (3), Brazil (11), Canada (1: Quebec), Chile (1), Costa Rica (3), Ecuador (4), Fiji (1), Greenland (2), Indonesia (1), Ireland (1), Italy (5), Japan (8), the Marshall Islands (1), Mayotte (2), Mexico (7), Morocco (1), the Netherlands (2), New Zealand (1), Panama (2), Peru (1), Portugal (1), South Africa (3), the United Kingdom (5), United States (102: Alaska, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Virginia), Uruguay (1), Vanuatu (1)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of Ecuador (1), United States (10: California)

• Pliocene of Belgium (3), Costa Rica (5), the Dominican Republic (1), Ecuador (10), Fiji (1), Holy See (Vatican City State) (1), Italy (5), Jamaica (3), Japan (2), Mexico (4), the Netherlands (1), Pakistan (2), Panama (10), Peru (4), the Philippines (1), Portugal (1), South Africa (1), Spain (1), Trinidad and Tobago (8), the United Kingdom (7), United States (23: California, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia), Venezuela (8)

• Miocene to Pliocene of Australia (1), the Dominican Republic (1), Japan (1)

• Miocene of Algeria (1), Argentina (21), Australia (3), Austria (3), Belgium (4), Chile (4), Colombia (4), Denmark (1), the Dominican Republic (1), Fiji (1), France (3), Germany (39), Grenada (13), India (1), Indonesia (2), Italy (5), Japan (4), Mexico (4), the Netherlands (2), New Zealand (10), Pakistan (4), Palau (1), Panama (29), Peru (7), Poland (2), Saudi Arabia (1), Slovakia (1), Trinidad and Tobago (6), United States (29: Alaska, California, Delaware, Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, Oregon), Venezuela (1)

• Deseadan of Argentina (1)

• Oligocene to Miocene of Argentina (1)

• Oligocene to Pliocene of Argentina (1)

• Oligocene of Antigua and Barbuda (1), Argentina (2), Australia (1), Denmark (4), Ecuador (1), France (1), Germany (2), Hungary (1), Japan (1), Mexico (2), the Netherlands (1), New Zealand (10), Panama (1), United States (53: Alabama, Alaska, California, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Washington)

• Whaingaroan of New Zealand (1)

• Eocene to Oligocene of Argentina (2), United States (2: Oregon, Washington)

• Eocene of Antarctica (1), Argentina (1), Australia (2), Bulgaria (2), Croatia (2), Egypt (2), France (16), Germany (2), Italy (2), Japan (2), Mexico (4), the Netherlands (1), New Zealand (8), Nigeria (1), Pakistan (11), Panama (2), Peru (8), the Russian Federation (4), Saudi Arabia (1), Spain (2), Tonga (1), the United Kingdom (16), United States (197: Alabama, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Washington)

• Paleocene of Argentina (1), Australia (2), Austria (3), Belgium (1), Colombia (2), Denmark (7), Egypt (2), Greenland (4), Mexico (1), New Zealand (2), Poland (5), United States (42: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, Texas, Virginia)

• Cretaceous of Argentina (2), Cameroon (3), Canada (7: Alberta, British Columbia), Chile (1), Egypt (6), France (6), Germany (5), Israel (12), Japan (6), Madagascar (1), Mexico (3), Mozambique (1), New Zealand (7), Peru (1), Poland (4), the Russian Federation (3), South Africa (1), Spain (3), Switzerland (5), Turkmenistan (1), the United Kingdom (6), United States (133: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas)

• Jurassic of Germany (4), India (1)

• Triassic of Austria (2), Bosnia and Herzegovina (1), Indonesia (2), Italy (7)

Total: 1179 collections including 1973 occurrences

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