Family Epitoniidae Berry 1910 (wentletrap)

Gastropoda - Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae

Synonym: Scalidae Adams and A. 1853

Parent taxon: Epitonioidea according to P. Bouchet et al. 2005

See also Beesley 1998, Duerr 2004, Harzhauser 2002, Landau and Marques da Silva 2010, Martin 1904, Ponder and Warén 1988, Rivera 1957, Sohl 1964, Todd 2001, Ward and Blackwelder 1987 and Wienrich 2001

Sister taxa: Janthinidae, Nystiellidae, Scalacea, Epitoniacea

Subtaxa: Aciculiscala Acirsa Acirsinae Acrilla Alora Amaea Australolaxispira Cerithiscala Cirsotrema Clathroscala Clathrus Crossotrema Dannevigena Eglisia Epitomium Epitoniinae Epitonium Filiscala Funis Gregorioiscala Littoriniscala Mazescala Murdochella Narvaliscala Notacirsa Nystiellinae Opalia Opaliinae Papuliscala Pliciscala Problitora Scala Scalaria Scalina Sthenorytis Turriscala Variciscala

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Ecology: slow-moving low-level epifaunal carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Australia (2 collections), the Bahamas (3), Brazil (11), Canada (1: Quebec), Chile (1), Costa Rica (3), Ecuador (4), Fiji (1), Indonesia (1), Italy (4), Japan (8), the Marshall Islands (1), Mexico (6), the Netherlands (2), New Zealand (1), Panama (2), Portugal (1), South Africa (3), the United Kingdom (5), United States (58: Alaska, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Virginia), Uruguay (1), Vanuatu (1)

• Pliocene of Belgium (3), Costa Rica (5), the Dominican Republic (1), Ecuador (11), Fiji (1), Italy (2), Jamaica (3), Japan (2), Mexico (4), the Netherlands (1), Pakistan (2), Panama (10), Peru (4), the Philippines (1), Portugal (1), South Africa (1), Spain (1), Trinidad and Tobago (8), the United Kingdom (7), United States (20: California, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia), Venezuela (8)

• Miocene to Pliocene of the Dominican Republic (1), Japan (1)

• Miocene of Algeria (1), Argentina (21), Australia (3), Austria (3), Belgium (4), Chile (4), Colombia (4), Denmark (1), the Dominican Republic (1), Fiji (1), France (3), Germany (39), Grenada (13), India (1), Indonesia (2), Italy (4), Japan (4), Mexico (4), the Netherlands (2), New Zealand (10), Pakistan (4), Palau (1), Panama (29), Peru (7), Poland (1), Slovakia (1), Trinidad and Tobago (6), United States (20: Alaska, California, Delaware, Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, Oregon), Venezuela (1)

• Deseadan of Argentina (1)

• Oligocene to Miocene of Argentina (1)

• Oligocene to Pliocene of Argentina (1)

• Oligocene of Antigua and Barbuda (1), Argentina (2), Australia (1), Denmark (4), Ecuador (1), France (1), Germany (2), Hungary (1), Mexico (2), the Netherlands (1), New Zealand (10), Panama (1), United States (41: Alaska, California, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Washington)

• Eocene to Oligocene of Argentina (2), United States (11: Oregon)

• Eocene of Antarctica (1), Argentina (1), Australia (1), Bulgaria (2), Croatia (2), Egypt (2), France (16), Germany (1), Japan (2), Mexico (4), New Zealand (8), Nigeria (1), Pakistan (11), Panama (2), Peru (7), the Russian Federation (4), Saudi Arabia (1), Spain (2), Tonga (1), the United Kingdom (16), United States (136: Alabama, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Washington)

• Paleocene of Argentina (1), Australia (2), Austria (2), Belgium (1), Colombia (1), Denmark (7), Egypt (2), Greenland (4), Mexico (1), New Zealand (2), Poland (5), United States (33: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, Texas, Virginia)

• Cretaceous of Canada (5: Alberta), Chile (1), Egypt (6), France (6), Germany (4), Israel (12), Japan (6), Mexico (2), Mozambique (1), New Zealand (7), Peru (1), Poland (5), the Russian Federation (3), South Africa (1), Spain (3), Switzerland (5), Turkmenistan (1), the United Kingdom (6), United States (105: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas)

• Jurassic of India (1)

• Triassic of Italy (7)

Total: 967 collections including 1594 occurrences

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