Subfamily Caninae Gill 1872 (canine)

Mammalia - Carnivora - Canidae

Parent taxon: Canidae according to R. H. Tedford et al. 2009

See also Bjork 1970, Kurten and Anderson 1980, Tedford and Wang 2008 and Wang et al. 1999

Sister taxa: Alopex, Amphicyon angustidens, Atelocynus, Borophaginae, Chailicyon, Cubacyon, Cynodictis, Cynotherium, Dusicyon, Dysodus, Gobicyon, Hesperocyoninae, Lycaon, Neovulpavus, Nyctereutes, Otocyon, Otocyoninae, Plesiocyon, Protemnocyon, Protocyon, Prototocyon, Speothos, Synagodus, Vulpes

Subtaxa: Canini Leptocyon Vulpini

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Ecology: ground dwelling carnivore-omnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Argentina (11 collections), Austria (1), Belgium (1), Bolivia (3), Brazil (4), Canada (9: Alberta, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Chile (1), China (9), Colombia (1), the Congo-Kinshasa (3), Cook Islands (1), Croatia (1), Cuba (1), the Czech Republic (3), Egypt (5), El Salvador (1), Ethiopia (1), France (27), Georgia (2), Germany (11), Greece (9), Greenland (3), Hungary (8), Israel (4), Italy (36), Japan (4), Kazakhstan (2), Kenya (8), Kyrgyzstan (1), Libya (2), Madagascar (2), Malta (1), the Marshall Islands (1), Mexico (8), Monaco (7), Mongolia (1), Morocco (8), the Netherlands (4), Niger (1), Northern Mariana Islands (2), Pakistan (1), Peru (6), Romania (9), the Russian Federation (9), South Africa (41), Spain (14), Sudan (4), Syria (1), Tajikistan (2), Tanzania (4), Tunisia (1), Turkey (3), Turkmenistan (1), the United Kingdom (7), United States (206: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wyoming), Venezuela (2), Vietnam (2), Zambia (2)

• Blancan of Mexico (3), United States (79: Arizona, California, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of Bulgaria (1), France (2), Greece (2), Italy (2), Kenya (2), South Africa (7), Tajikistan (1), Turkey (1), United States (1: Nebraska)

• Pliocene of Canada (1: Northwest Territories), China (1), Ethiopia (1), France (2), Georgia (2), Hungary (4), Italy (1), Kazakhstan (1), Kenya (1), Mexico (2), Moldova (4), Morocco (1), Romania (2), the Russian Federation (5), South Africa (3), Spain (2), Tajikistan (3), Tanzania (11), Ukraine (3), United States (2: California, Idaho)

• Hemphillian of Mexico (3), United States (45: Arizona, California, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas)

• Miocene to Pliocene of South Africa (3)

• Miocene to Pleistocene of Spain (1)

• Neogene of Italy (1)

• Miocene of Canada (3: Saskatchewan), Italy (1), Spain (1), United States (132: Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas)

• Harrisonian of United States (10: Florida, Nebraska, South Dakota, Wyoming)

• Arikareean of United States (8: California, Montana, Oregon, South Dakota)

• Oligocene of United States (3: South Dakota)

Total: 887 collections including 1076 occurrences

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