Order Apodida Brandt 1835 (sea cucumber)

Holothuroidea - Apodida

Alternative spelling: Apoda

Full reference: J. F. Brandt. 1835. Prodromus descriptionis animalium ab H. Mertensio in orbis terrarum circumnavigatione observatorum. Animalia Mertensii. Petropoli, Lipsiae 1:1-75

Parent taxon: Holothuroidea according to H. W. Kozur and H. Mostler 2008

See also Boczarowski 2001, Frizzell and Exline 1966, Gilliland 1992, Gilliland 1993, Kerr and Kim 2001, Pawson 1966, Reich 2002, Schlumberger 1890 and Sepkoski 2002

Sister taxa: Acanthocaudina, Achistrulidae, Alexandritidae, Ancistrum, Apodacea, Arthrochirota, Arthrochirotida, Aspidochirotacea, Aspidochirotida, Calcancorellidae, Canisiidae, Chiridotitidae, Conisia, Crucivirga, Cucumaria, Dactylochirotida, Dendrochirotacea, Dendrochirotida, Elasipodida, Etheridgellidae, Kaliobullitidae, Kozurellidae, Kuehnitidae, Laetmophasma, Molpadiida, Ocellothuria, Palelpidiidae, Priscopedatidae, Protocaudinidae, Punctatitidae, Rotiformidae, Sclerothurites, Staurocumites, Stichopitidae, Synaptellidae, Tetravirga, Thyonidium, Triradites, Uniramosa

Subtaxa: Achistridae Calcancoridae Chiridotidae Holothuriopsis Myriotrochidae Myriotrochus Porachistrum Synapta Synaptidae Synaptitidae Theeliidae

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Ecology: epifaunal detritivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of India (1 collection)

• Miocene of Chile (1), Poland (1)

• Oligocene of Germany (1), United States (1: California)

• Eocene of France (2)

• Cretaceous of Austria (1), France (2), Germany (2), Jordan (1), Poland (2)

• Jurassic of Egypt (3), France (5), Germany (2), India (2), Jordan (2), Poland (46), Switzerland (2), the United Kingdom (16)

• Triassic of Austria (10), China (1), Germany (2), Hungary (3), India (1), Iran (1), Italy (10), Poland (1), Slovakia (12), Slovenia (1), Thailand (1), Turkey (5)

• Permian of Germany (1), Hungary (1), Iran (1), Italy (1), United States (5: Kansas, Texas)

• Virgilian of United States (2: Nebraska, Texas)

• Carboniferous of the United Kingdom (1), United States (15: Arizona, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Montana, Oklahoma, Texas)

• Mississippian of Afghanistan (1)

• Devonian of Germany (1), Poland (11)

Total: 181 collections including 474 occurrences

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