Subfamily Colubrinae Oppel 1811 (colubrid snake)

Reptilia - Squamata - Colubridae

Full reference: M. Oppel. 1811. Die Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen der Reptilien als Prodom einer Naturgeschichte Derselben. Joseph Lindauer, München xii-86

Parent taxon: Colubridae according to O. W. M. Kuhn 1966

See also Böhme 2008, Cernansky et al. 2015, Kuhn 1946, Mlynarski 1962, Parmley and Holman 1995, Parmley and Hunter 2010 and Underwood 1967

Sister taxa: Abastor, Aglypha, Bascanium, Carphophis, Cemophora, Chilomeniscus, Chionactis, Coluber owenii, Coniophanes, Contia, Cyclophis, Diadophis, Dipsadinae, Dromicus, Dryinoides, Eutaenia, Farancia, Gyalopion, Haldea, Helicops, Hierophis, Hispanophis, Homalopsinae, Hypsiglena, Leioheterodon, Lodia, Lycodon, Malpolon, Mionatrix, Natricinae, Ophibolus, Opisthoglypha, Osceola, Palaelaphis, Palaeomalpolon, Palaeonatrix, Paleofarancia, Paraoxybelis, Paraxenophis, Periergophis, Phimothyra, Pollackophis, Proteroglypha, Pseudoboa, Pseudocemophora, Pylmophis, Rhinechis, Rhinocheilus, Sibon, Sonora, Spilotes, Storeria, Tachyophis, Tantilla, Thamnophis, Trimorphodon, Tropidoclonium, Tropidonotus, Xenodontinae, Zamenis

Subtaxa: Ameiseophis Arizona Coluber Coluber etruriae Coronella Dakotaophis Drymarchon Drymobius Elaphe Ficimia Floridaophis Lampropeltis Liochlorophis Macroprotodon Masticophis Miocoluber Nebraskophis Opheodrys Oxybelis Paracoluber Phyllorhynchus Pituophis Salvadora Stilosoma Telescopus Texasophis Zelceophis

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Ecology: ground dwelling carnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Bolivia (1 collection), China (2), Croatia (1), France (11), Georgia (2), Germany (8), Greece (7), Italy (9), Mexico (1), Poland (13), Serbia and Montenegro (1), Spain (13), the United Kingdom (4), United States (68: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia)

• Blancan of Mexico (2), United States (13: Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Washington)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of France (1)

• Pliocene of Austria (3), France (2), Germany (1), Greece (1), Hungary (4), Italy (1), Japan (1), Moldova (5), Morocco (1), Poland (8), Slovakia (1), Spain (3), Ukraine (2)

• MN 13 of Hungary (1)

• Hemphillian of United States (10: Arizona, Indiana, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, Oklahoma, Texas)

• Miocene of Austria (5), Canada (1: Saskatchewan), the Czech Republic (4), France (6), Germany (13), Greece (3), Hungary (13), Italy (7), Mongolia (1), Namibia (4), Poland (3), Portugal (1), Romania (4), the Russian Federation (3), Slovakia (1), Spain (7), Turkey (4), Ukraine (2), United States (36: Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, Texas, Wyoming)

• Oligocene of France (11), Germany (2), United States (2: Colorado, Florida)

• Eocene of United States (1: Georgia)

Total: 335 collections including 677 occurrences

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