Family Testudinidae Batsch 1788 (turtle)

Reptilia - Testudines - Pantestudinidae

Parent taxon: Pantestudinidae according to E. Vlachos 2018

See also Andrews 1906, Antunes and de Broin 1977, Baur 1893, Böhme 2008, Carroll 1988, Cope 1871, Cope 1875, de la Fuente et al. 2018, Estes 1964, Estes and Berberian 1970, Frank and Ramus 1996, Gaffney 1975, Garcia et al. 2016, Gray 1869, Hervet 2003, Hutchison et al. 2004, Joyce et al. 2004, Karl 2007, Kuhn 1946, Lambe 1908, Lapparent de Broin 2002, Lydekker 1889, Manzano et al. 2009, Meylan and Auffenberg 1986, Meylan and Sterrer 2000, Owen 1842, Pérez-García et al. 2013, Pérez-García et al. 2017, Staesche et al. 2007, Stirton 1953, Takahashi et al. 2003, Thurmond and Jones 1981, Turvey et al. 2017, van Dijk et al. 2014, Vlachos and Delfino 2016, Vlachos et al. 2015, Vlachos et al. 2014, Vlachos and Tsoukala 2014, Vlachos and Tsoukala 2016 and Zacarias et al. 2013

Sister taxa: Cymatholcus, Hadrianus, Oligopherus

Subtaxa: Achilemys Agrionemys Aldabrachelys Anhuichelys Astrochelys Cachuga Caryoderma Centrochelys Cheirogaster Chelone Chelonoidis Chelys patagonica Chersina Cylindraspis Damonia Dipsochelys Emys sombrerensis Ergilemys Eurotestudo Floridemys Floridemys hurdi Fontainechelon Geochelone Geochelone (Chelonoidis) Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) equicomes Gigantochersina Gopherus Gopherus praecedens Hesperotestudo Homopus Impregnochelys Indotestudo Juvemys Kansuchelys Kinixys Malacochersus Manouria Megalochelys Mesochersus Miotestudo Namibchersus Nicoria Palaeoemys Paleotestudo Pelorochelon Psammobates Pyxis Sinohadrianus Stigmochelys Stylemys Stylemys calaverensis Taraschelon Testudininae Testudininei Testudinites sellovii Testudo Testudo annae Testudo atascosae Testudo castrensis Testudo cultrata Testudo exornata Testudo formosa Testudo francisi Testudo hayi Testudo klettiana Testudo laticaudata Testudo louisekressmani Testudo luciae Testudo ocalana Testudo paranensis Testudo peragrans Testudo quadratus Testudo undata Titanochelon

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Ecology: ground dwelling herbivore-herbivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Anguilla (1 collection), Argentina (10), the Bahamas (6), Bermuda (1), Bolivia (1), Brazil (4), China (3), the Congo-Kinshasa (2), Croatia (1), Cuba (5), Djibouti (1), the Dominican Republic (7), Ecuador (6), El Salvador (3), France (8), Georgia (1), Greece (19), Haiti (1), Hungary (1), Indonesia (7), Israel (3), Italy (7), Japan (6), Kenya (5), Madagascar (2), Malta (4), Mauritius (4), Mexico (4), Morocco (3), the Netherlands Antilles (2), Papua New Guinea (1), Paraguay (3), Puerto Rico (3), Reunion (2), Saudi Arabia (1), the Seychelles (3), South Africa (13), Spain (6), Sudan (2), Tanzania (3), Turks and Caicos Islands (2), United States (83: Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia), Uruguay (1)

• Blancan of Mexico (2), United States (17: Arizona, California, Florida, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Texas)

• Pliocene to Holocene of the Congo-Kinshasa (1)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of the Congo-Kinshasa (1), France (1), Greece (2), Italy (1), Kenya (20), South Africa (5), Spain (1), United States (2: California, Nebraska)

• Pliocene of Argentina (5), Bulgaria (1), Chad (3), China (1), France (5), Greece (10), Hungary (3), India (2), Indonesia (7), Italy (2), Japan (1), Kenya (4), Libya (1), Mexico (1), Mongolia (1), Morocco (5), Pakistan (1), Poland (2), South Africa (3), Spain (7), Tanzania (10), Thailand (1), Turkey (3), Ukraine (1), United States (6: California, Kansas, North Carolina, Texas)

• Montehermosan of Argentina (3)

• MN 13 of Turkey (1)

• Hemphillian of Mexico (1), United States (17: California, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas)

• Miocene to Pliocene of Chad (1), France (1), Greece (3), Kenya (3), Morocco (1), South Africa (2), United States (7: California, Kansas, Oklahoma)

• Miocene to Pleistocene of United States (1: Texas)

• Neogene of Argentina (1), South Africa (1)

• Miocene of Argentina (17), Austria (5), Bolivia (1), Brazil (2), Canada (4: Saskatchewan), Chad (1), China (14), Colombia (5), France (29), Germany (37), Greece (11), India (1), Iraq (1), Italy (3), Kazakhstan (1), Kenya (9), Lebanon (1), Moldova (3), Namibia (12), Nepal (2), Pakistan (7), Panama (1), Poland (1), Portugal (4), Romania (1), Saudi Arabia (3), Serbia and Montenegro (1), Slovakia (3), South Africa (1), Spain (31), Sri Lanka (2), Switzerland (1), Thailand (1), Tunisia (2), Turkey (15), Ukraine (7), the United Arab Emirates (5), United States (74: California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Wyoming)

• Harrisonian of United States (5: Nebraska, South Dakota, Texas)

• Deseadan of Argentina (1), Bolivia (1), Uruguay (1)

• Arikareean of United States (5: California, Florida, Oregon, South Dakota, Wyoming)

• Oligocene to Miocene of Costa Rica (1), France (1)

• Oligocene of Belgium (1), Canada (1: Saskatchewan), China (1), the Czech Republic (1), Egypt (2), France (28), Georgia (1), Germany (5), Japan (1), Kazakhstan (1), Mongolia (1), Oman (2), Switzerland (1), United States (19: Florida, Nebraska, Oregon, South Dakota, Virginia, Wyoming)

• Eocene to Oligocene of China (2), France (1), United States (1: Nebraska)

• Eocene to Miocene of France (1)

• Eocene of Austria (1), Belgium (1), Canada (5: Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan), China (4), France (20), Germany (6), Mexico (1), Mongolia (3), Myanmar (3), Portugal (2), Spain (7), Thailand (1), the United Kingdom (9), United States (20: California, Colorado, Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota), Western Sahara (1)

• Paleocene of China (16)

• Tertiary of China (1)

• Cretaceous of the Netherlands (1), the United Kingdom (1)

• Jurassic of Germany (1)

Total: 941 collections including 1097 occurrences

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