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Clavaxinellida

Demospongiae

Taxonomy
Clavaxinellida was named by Levi (1956). It is extant.

It was assigned to Demospongea by Finks et al. (2004).

Sister taxa
Clavulina, Protomonaxonida

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1956Clavaxinellida Levi
2004Clavaxinellida Finks et al. p. 9

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
phylumPoriferaGrant 1836
classDemospongiae(Sollas 1875)
RankNameAuthor
subclassClavaxinellidaLevi 1956
subclassClavaxinellidaLevi 1956

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Subcl. Clavaxinellida Levi 1956
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Or. Clavulina Vosmaer 1887
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Fm. Adociidae De Laubenfels 1936
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G. Aka De Laubenfels 1936
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Aka muelleri Reitner and Keupp 1991
Fm. †Clionaidae d'Orbigny 1851
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G. Alectona Carter 1879
G. †Clionoides Fenton and Fenton 1932
G. †Clionolithes Clark 1908
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Invalid names: Olkenbachia [synonym]
G. †Entobia Bronn 1838
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Entobia cateniformis Bromley and D'Alessandro 1984
Entobia cretacea Portlock 1843
Entobia laquea Bromley and D'Alessandro 1984
Invalid names: Entobia Bronn 1838 [objective synonym]
G. †Filuroda Solle 1938
G. †Palaeosabella Clarke 1921
G. †Runia Marek 1984
Or. Protomonaxonida Finks et al. 2004
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Fm. †Choiidae Laubenfels 1925
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G. †Allantospongia Rigby and Hou 1995
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Allantospongia mica Rigby and Hou 1995
G. †Choia Walcott 1920
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Choia carteri Walcott 1920
Choia hindei Dawson 1896
Choia ridleyi Walcott 1920
Choia striata Xiao et al. 2005
Choia utahensis Walcott 1920
G. †Choiaella Rigby and Hou 1995
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Choiaella radiata Rigby and Hou 1995
Choiaella scotica Beresi et al. 2010
G. †Lenica Goryanskiy 1977
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Lenica unica Goryanskiy 1977
Fm. †Halichondritidae Rigby 1986
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G. †Arborispongia Rigby 1986
G. †Halichondrites Walcott 1920
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Halichondrites elissa Walcott 1920
G. †Pohlispongia Rigby and von Bitter 2005
Fm. †Hamptoniidae Laubenfels 1955
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G. †Hamptonia Walcott 1920
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Hamptonia bowerbanki Walcott 1920
Hamptonia chengjiangensis Wu et al. 2014
Hamptonia christi Botting 2007
Hamptonia elongata Rigby and Collins 2004
Hamptonia parva Rigby et al. 2010
G. †Hamptoniella Rigby and Collins 2004
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Hamptoniella foliata Rigby and Collins 2004
Hamptoniella hirsuta Rigby and Collins 2004
G. †Offela Rogers et al. 1964
Fm. †Hazeliidae De Laubenfels 1955
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G. †Crumillospongia Rigby 1986
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Crumillospongia frondosa Walcott 1919
Crumillospongia mureroensis Garcia-Bellido et al. 2011
G. †Falospongia Rigby 1986
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Falospongia falata Rigby 1986
Falospongia ramosa Rigby and Collins 2004
G. †Hazelia Walcott 1920
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Hazelia conferta Walcott 1920
Hazelia crateria Rigby 1986
Hazelia delicatula Walcott 1920
Hazelia dignata Walcott 1920
Hazelia grandis Walcott 1920
Hazelia lobata Rigby and Collins 2004
Hazelia luteria Rigby 1986
Hazelia nodulifera Walcott 1920
Hazelia obscura Walcott 1920
Hazelia palmata Walcott 1920
Hazelia walcotti Resser and Howell 1938
G. †Xylochos Botting 2004
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Xylochos palindromica Botting 2004
Fm. †Heliospongiidae Finks 1960
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G. †Coelocladia Girty 1908
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Coelocladia spinosa Girty 1908
G. †Coelocladiella Finks 1960
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Coelocladiella lissa Finks 1960
G. †Heliospongia Girty 1908
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Heliospongia excavata King 1933
Heliospongia finksi Termier and Termier 1977
Heliospongia ramosa Girty 1908
Heliospongia vokesi King 1943
G. †Neoheliospongia Deng 1981
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G. †Spitsbergenia Hurcewicz 1982
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Spitsbergenia patella Hurcewicz 1982
Fm. †Leptomitidae De Laubenfels 1955
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G. †Leptomitella Rigby 1986
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Leptomitella confusa Chen et al. 1989
Leptomitella conica Chen et al. 1989
Leptomitella incepta Rigby and Collins 2004
Leptomitella metta Rigby 1983
G. †Leptomitus Walcott 1886
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Leptomitus conicus GarcĂ­a-Bellido et al. 2007
Leptomitus lineatus Walcott 1920
Leptomitus minor Resser and Howell 1938
Leptomitus teretiusculus Chen et al. 1989
Leptomitus undulatus Rigby and Collins 2004
Leptomitus zitteli Walcott 1886
Invalid names: Tuponia Walcott 1920 [synonym]
G. †Paraleptomitella Chen et al. 1989
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Paraleptomitella dictyodroma Chen et al. 1989
Paraleptomitella globula Chen et al. 1989
G. †Pseudoleptomitus Botting 2019
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Pseudoleptomitus advenus Botting 2019
G. †Wareiella Rigby and Harris 1979
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Wareiella typicala Rigby and Harris 1979
G. †Lobatospongia Rigby et al. 2007
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Lobatospongia nodensis Rigby et al. 2007
Fm. †Mahalospongiidae Rigby and Stuart 1988
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G. †Mahalospongia Rigby and Stuart 1988
Fm. †Piraniidae Laubenfels 1955
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G. †Moleculospina Rigby 1986
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Moleculospina mammillata Walcott 1920
G. †Pirania Walcott 1920
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Pirania auraeum Botting 2007
Pirania llanfawrensis Botting 2004
Pirania muricata Walcott 1920
Fm. †Sinospongiidae Finks and Rigby 2004
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G. †Sinospongia Chen 1992
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Sinospongia typica Li 1996
Invalid names: Niuganmafeia Chen 1991 [synonym]
Fm. †Sollasellidae von Lendenfeld 1887
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G. †Luterospongia Rigby et al. 2008
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Luterospongia texana Rigby et al. 2008
G. †Mckittrickella Rigby et al. 2007
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Mckittrickella pratti Rigby et al. 2007
G. †Monaxoradiata Rigby and Bell 2006
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Monaxoradiata lamina Rigby and Bell 2006
G. †Opetionella Zittel 1878
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Opetionella poculum Schrammen 1910
Opetionella radians Zittel 1878
G. †Rhizopsis Schrammen 1910
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Rhizopsis horrida Schrammen 1910
G. Sollasella von Lendenfeld 1888
G. †Stramentella Gerasimov 1960
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Stramentella helminthophora Gerasimov 1960
Stramentella ostaschovensis Gerasimov 1960
G. †Trichospongiella Rigby 1971
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Trichospongiella hystrix Whiteaves 1897
Fm. †Takakkawiidae De Laubenfels 1955
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G. †Takakkawia Walcott 1920
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Takakkawia lineata Walcott 1920
Fm. †Tethyidae Gray 1867
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G. †Tethya Lamarck 1814
Fm. †Ulospongiellidae Rigby and Collins 2004
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G. †Hapalospongia Rigby and Collins 2004
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Hapalospongia flexuosa Rigby and Collins 2004
G. †Ulospongiella Rigby and Collins 2004
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Ulospongiella ancyla Rigby and Collins 2004
Fm. †Wapkiidae De Laubenfels 1955
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G. †Wapkia Walcott 1920
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Wapkia elongata Rigby and Collins 2004
Wapkia grandis Walcott 1920
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: silicac
Locomotion: stationaryc
Attached: yesc
Life habit: intermediate-level epifaunalc
Diet: suspension feederc
Vision: blindc
Created: 2004-02-28 11:36:02
Modified: 2009-10-09 09:25:40
Source: c = class
References: Kiessling 2004, Whittington et al. 1997

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Ediacaran to the top of the Holocene or 635.00000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 541.0 Ma

Collections (551 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Ediacaran635.0 - 541.0China (Hubei) Sinospongia chenjunyuani, Sinospongia typica (106450)
Early/Lower Cambrian538.8 - 509.0Spain (Aragon) Crumillospongia mureroensis (120550 120552)
Early/Lower Cambrian538.8 - 509.0China (Yunnan) Choiaella radiatia, Choia ridley, Choia carteri, Choia hindei, Leptomitus teretiusculus, Allantospongia mica, Choia utahensis, Wapkia grandis, Halichondrites elissa, Leptomitella conica, Leptomitella confusa, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma, Paraleptomitella globula, Hamptonia chengjiangensis (156226)
Meishucunian530.7 - 521.0China (Anhui) Choia striata, Choia utahensis (96370)
Atdabanian521.0 - 516.0China (Yunnan) Allantospongia mica, Leptomitella conica, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (90150) Choia hindei, Choiaella radiata, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (90164) Choia hindei, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (90166) Choia xiaolantianensis, Choiaella radiata, Hazelia palmata, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma, Paraleptomitella globula (86851) Choiaella radiata (90165) Choiaella radiata, Allantospongia mica (96405) Halichondrites sp., Choia sp., Hamptonia bowerbanki, Leptomitus teretiusculus, Choiaella radiata, Allantospongia mica, Hazelia palmata, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (68083) Leptomitella conica, Leptomitella confusa, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma, Paraleptomitella globula (90494) Leptomitella sp., Leptomitus sp., Paraleptomitella sp., Crumillospongia sp., Hazelia sp., Choia sp. (86929) Leptomitella teretiusculus, Halichondrites sp., Leptomitella confusa, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (86846) Leptomitus sp., Paraleptomitella sp., Crumillospongia sp., Hazelia sp., Choia sp., Halicondrites sp. (86930) Leptomitus teretiusculus (96410) Leptomitus teretiusculus, Choiaella radiata, Leptomitella conica, Leptomitella confusa, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma, Paraleptomitella globula (96402) Leptomitus teretiusculus, Choiaella radiata, Leptomitella conica, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (90138) Leptomitus teretiusculus, Leptomitella confusa, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (96412) Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (96413)
Atdabanian521.0 - 516.0China (Anhui) Leptomitella sp. (96659 96660)
Atdabanian521.0 - 516.0China (Guizhou) Choiaella radiata (86849)
Atdabanian521.0 - 516.0Greenland (Peary Land) Choia hindei (90574)
Nangaoian521.0 - 514.0China (Guizhou) Choia zunyiensis, Leptomitus teretiusculus (128419) Leptomitus sp. (128420) Leptomitus teretiusculus (128421)
Nangaoian521.0 - 514.0China (Hubai) Leptomitella sp., Leptomitus sp., Paraleptomitella sp., Crumillospongia sp., Halichondrites sp., Hazelia sp., Choia sp. (219687)
Nangaoian521.0 - 514.0China (Yunnan) Choia hindei, Leptomitus teretiusculus, Choiaella radiata, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (132327) Halichondrites sp., Hazelia sp., Leptomitus teretiusculus, Choiaella radiata, Leptomitella conica, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma, Paraleptomitella globula (132329 132330) Hazelia sp.nov, Choiaella radiata (194155) Hazelia sp.nov, Leptomitus teretiusculus, Choiaella radiata, Halichondrites elissa, Leptomitella conica, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (194150) Hazelia sp.nov, Leptomitus teretiusculus, Choiaella radiata, Halichondrites elissa, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma, Paraleptomitella globula (194163) Hazelia sp.nov, Leptomitus teretiusculus, Choiaella radiata, Leptomitella conica, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (194143 194160) Hazelia sp.nov, Leptomitus teretiusculus, Leptomitella conica, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (194161) Hazelia sp.nov, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (194153 194162) Leptomitus teretiusculus, Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (194141) Paraleptomitella dictyodroma (194140)
Atdabanian - Botomian521.0 - 512.9Greenland Choia hindei (121183 121184 121185)
Botomian516.0 - 512.9Russian Federation (Yakutia) Lenica sp., Wapkia sp. (90438)
Botomian516.0 - 512.9Russian Federation (Sakha) Lenica unica (121186)
Botomian516.0 - 512.9China (Yunnan) Choia sp. (90368)
Botomian516.0 - 512.9Australia (South Australia) Leptomitidae indet., Hamptoniidae indet., Choiidae indet. (187498)
Dyeran515.3 - 511.2USA (Vermont) Leptomitus sp. (191) Leptomitus zitteli (121235)
Dyeran515.3 - 511.2USA (Pennsylvania) Leptomitus minor (226194) Leptomitus walcotti (226192) Leptomitus walcotti, Leptomitus minor (192)
Dyeran - Delamaran515.3 - 506.5USA (Pennsylvania) Hazelia walcotti (121236)
Delamaran511.2 - 506.5USA (Utah) Choia sp. (77217)