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Muricidae (murex snail)

Gastropoda - Neogastropoda - Muricidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1815Muricidae Rafinesque
1904Muricidae Martin p. 203
1923Muricidae Clark and Arnold p. 161
1931Muricidae Olsson p. 105
1938Muricidae Turner p. 80
1947Muricidae Harris and Palmer p. 337
1964Muricidae Sohl p. 370
1970Muricidae Addicott p. 76
1974Muricidae Abbott pp. 170, 171
1976Muricidae Givens and Kennedy p. 969
1977Muricidae Adegoke p. 212
1980Muricidae Hickman p. 53
1984Muricidae Squires p. 30
1987Muricidae Ward and Blackwelder p. 132
1988Muricidae Ponder and Warén p. 304
1989Muricidae Vokes p. 24
1990Muricidae Beu et al.
1992Muricidae Ward p. 120
1995Muricidae Chiesa et al. p. 55
1996Muricidae Houart p. 12
1998Muricidae Beesley p. 820
2000Muricidae DeVries p. 43
2001Muricidae Harzhauser and Mandic p. 707
2001Muricidae Todd
2001Muricidae Wienrich p. 468
2002Muricidae Harzhauser p. 93
2002Muricidae Merle and Pacaud p. 22
2004Muricidae Harzhauser p. 135
2005Muricidae Bouchet et al. p. 255
2010Muricidae Landau and Marques da Silva p. 61
2024Muricidae Schnetler et al. p. 18

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumMollusca
classGastropoda
RankNameAuthor
subclassCaenogastropoda(Cox 1959)
Sorbeoconcha(Ponder and Lindberg 1997)
Hypsogastropoda(Ponder and Lindberg 1997)
superorderLatrogastropodaRiedel 2000
orderNeogastropodaThiele 1929
superfamilyMuricoideade Costa 1776
familyMuricidaeRafinesque 1815
familyMuricidaeRafinesque 1815

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Fm. Muricidae Rafinesque 1815 [murex snail]
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G. Acanthotrophon Hertlein and Strong 1951 [knobbed trophon]
G. Aspella Mörch 1877
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Subg. Aspella (Aspella) Mörch 1877
Aspella anceps Lamarck 1822
Aspella emmae Boettger 1901
Aspella senex Dall 1903
Aspella subanceps d'Orbigny 1852
G. †Atractodon Charlesworth 1837
G. Attiliosa Emerson 1968
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Attiliosa aldridgei Nowell-Usticke 1969
Attiliosa arenaria Darragh 2017
G. Austrotrophon Dall 1902
+
+
Invalid names: Trophon oregonensis Anderson and Martin 1914 [synonym]
G. Babelomurex Coen 1922
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Babelomurex lindae Petuch 1988
G. Boreotrophon Fischer 1884
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+
Invalid names: Trophon (Boreotrophon) scalariformis Gould 1841 [synonym]
Boreotrophon harasewychi Petuch 1988
Boreotrophon laevis Martin 1904
Boreotrophon multicostatus Eschscholtz 1829
Boreotrophon tetricus Conrad 1832
Invalid names: Trophon (Boreotrophon) stuarti praecursor Arnold 1903 [synonym]
G. Calotrophon Hertlein and Strong 1951
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Calotrophon ascensus Vokes 1976
Calotrophon emilyae Petuch 1988
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Invalid names: Cantharus (Pseudosalpinx) floridana Conrad 1869 [synonym], Cantharus perplexus Olsson and Harbison 1953 [synonym]
Invalid names: Hertleinella Berry 1958 [synonym], Pseudosalpinx Olsson and Harbison 1953 [synonym]
G. †Cathymorula Landau et al. 2007
Subfm. †Coralliophilinae Chenu 1859
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G. Coralliophila Adams and Adams 1853
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Subg. Coralliophila (Pseudomurex) Monterosato 1872
Coralliophila klostermanni Wienrich 2001
Coralliophila nux Reeve 1846
G. †Hirtomurex Coen 1922
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Invalid names: Fusomurex Coen 1922 [synonym]
G. †Emozamia Iredale 1929
Fm. †Magilidae Thiele 1925
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G. Coralliobia Adams and Adams 1853
G. †Lowenstamia Sohl 1964
G. Magilus Monfort 1810
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Magilus antiquus Montfort 1810
G. †Mipus de Gregorio 1855
G. †Rapa Bruguière 1792
G. †Crassimurex Merle 1989
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Crassimurex akoi Adegoke 1977
Crassimurex calcitrapa Lamarck 1803
Crassimurex crispus Lamarck 1803
G. Cymia Mörch 1860
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Subg. Cymia (Cymia) Mörch 1860
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Cymia (Cymia) cheloma Woodring 1959
Cymia (Cymia) henekeni Maury 1917
Cymia berryi Olsson 1931
Cymia cocoditana Hodson 1931
Cymia heimi Hertlein and Jordan 1927
Cymia michaocanensis Perrilliat 1987
Cymia sacellum Chemntiz 1788
Cymia sacellum burrowsi Newton 1905
Cymia sekii Mizuno 1954
Cymia woodii Gabb 1860
Thais (Cymia) costata Blainville 1832
Thais (Cymia) javanica Philippi 1848
G. Dermomurex Monterosato 1890
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Subg. Dermomurex (Takia) Kuroda 1953
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Subg. Dermomurex (Viator) Vokes 1974
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Invalid names: Murex (Panamurex) gilletteorum Vokes 1963 [synonym]
Dermomurex pacei Petuch 1988
Dermomurex silicatus Darragh 2017
Invalid names: Hexachorda [synonym], Poweria Monterosato 1884 [replaced]
Subfm. Drupinae Wenz 1938
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G. †Condonia Hertlein 1965
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Condonia hannai Howe 1922
G. †Eofavartia Merle 2002
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Eofavartia frondosa Lamarck 1803
Subfm. †Ergalataxinae Kuroda et al. 1971
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G. Bedeva Iredale 1924
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Bedeva asperulus Tate 1888
Bedeva paivae Crosse 1864
G. Ergalatax Iredale 1931
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Ergalatax obscura Houart 1996
Ergalatax recurrens Iredale 1931
G. †Lataxiena Jousseaume 1883
G. †Maculotriton Dall 1904
G. †Muricodrupa Iredale 1918
G. †Pascula Dall 1908
G. †Phrygiomurex Dall 1904
G. Favartia Jousseaume 1880
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Subg. Favartia (Favartia) Jousseaume 1880
Favartia brevicula Sowerby 1834
Favartia cellulosa Conrad 1846
Favartia lappa Broderip 1833
Favartia pacei Petuch 1988
Favartia perita Hinds 1844
G. Hadriania Bucquoy et al. 1882
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Hadriania coelata Dujardin 1837
Hadriania craticulata Brocchi 1814
Hadriania jorgensis Ihering 1907
G. †Heteropurpura Jousseaume 1880
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Invalid names: Ocenebra dertonensis Montanaro 1935 [synonym], Tritonalia dertonensis Ruggieri 1956 [synonym]
Heteropurpura polymorpha Brocchi 1814
G. Hexaplex Perry 1811
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Subg. Hexaplex (Hexaplex) Perry 1810
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Invalid names: Fusus sexangulus Conrad 1834 [synonym]
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Invalid names: Murex (Poirieria) burryi Clench and Pérez Farfante 1945 [synonym]
Hexaplex (Hexaplex) supernus Harris and Palmer 1947
Subg. Hexaplex (Trunculariopsis) Cossmann 1921
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Invalid names: Murex dumosus De Stefani 1875 [synonym]
Hexaplex (Trunculariopsis) campanii De Stefani and Pantanelli 1878
Invalid names: Hexaplex (Truncularia) Wiegmann 1832 [synonym]
Hexaplex austriacus Tournouer 1875
Hexaplex brassica Lamarck 1822
Hexaplex cichoreum Gmelin 1810
Hexaplex erythrostomus Swainson 1831
Hexaplex hertweckorum Petuch 1988
Hexaplex kuesterianus Canefri 1875
Hexaplex regius Swainson 1821
Hexaplex tridentatus Tate 1888
Invalid names: Aaronia Verrill 1950 [synonym], Murithais Grant and Gale 1931 [synonym]
G. †Homalocantha Mörch 1852
+
G. Jaton Pusch 1837
G. †Lyrotyphis Jousseaume 1880
G. Mexacanthina Marko and Vermeij 1999
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Mexacanthina lugubris Sowerby I 1822
G. Monoceros Lamarck 1809
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Monoceros vetusta Conrad 1833
G. Morula Schumacher 1817
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Morula granulata Duclos 1832
Morula margariticola Broderip 1832
Morula valdemari Baluk 2006
G. Murexiella Clench and Farfante 1945
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Subg. Murexiella (Murexiella) Clench and Farfante 1945
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+
Invalid names: Chicoreus larvaecosta Heilprin 1887 [synonym]
Subg. Murexiella (Subpterynotus) Olsson and Harbison 1953
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Murexiella keenae Vokes 1970
Murexiella macgintyi Smith 1938
Invalid names: Minnimurex Woolacott 1957 [synonym]
G. Murexsul Iredale 1915
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Hexaplex (Murexsul) octagonus Quoy and Gaimard 1834
Murexsul hexagonus Lamarck 1816
Murexsul kochi Beyrich 1854
G. Muricanthus Swainson 1840
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Muricantha ighinae Bellardi 1872
Muricanthus nigritus Philippi 1845
Muricanthus princeps Broderip 1833
Muricanthus radix Gmelin 1791
G. †Muricidea Swainson 1840
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Subfm. Muricinae da Costa 1776
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G. Bolinus Pusch 1837
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Bolinus brandaris Linnaeus 1758
Murex (Bolinus) subtorularius Hörnes and Auinger 1885
G. †Caelobassus Stilwell and Zinsmeister 1992
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Caelobassus radwini Stilwell and Zinsmeister 1992
G. †Chicomurex Arakawa 1964
G. Chicoreus Monfort 1810
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Subg. Chicoreus (Naquetia) Jousseaume 1880
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Subg. †Chicoreus (Rhizophorimurex) Oyama 1950
Subg. Chicoreus (Siratus) Jousseaume 1880
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Invalid names: Murex (Murex) gardnerae Vokes 1963 [replaced]
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Invalid names: Murex antillarum Gabb 1873 [synonym]
Siratus adelosus Vokes 1989
Siratus amblyceras Tate 1888
Siratus dennanti Tate 1888
Subg. Chicoreus (Triplex) Perry 1810
+
+
Invalid names: Murex dujardini Tournouër 1875 [synonym], Murex eximius Bellardi 1873 [synonym]
Invalid names: Torvamurex Iredale 1936 [invalid subgroup]
Chicoreus asanoi Masuda 1956
+
Invalid names: Chicoreus (Rhizophorimurex) tiganouranus Oyama 1950 [synonym]
Chicoreus brunneus Link 1807
Chicoreus jungi Vokes 1990
Chicoreus ramosus Linnaeus 1758
Chicoreus venezuelanus Hodson and Hodson 1931
G. Haustellum Schumacher 1817
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Haustellum donmoorei Bullis 1964
Haustellum haustellum Linnaeus 1758
Haustellum mimiwilsoni Vokes 1990
Haustellum polynematicus Brown and Pilsbry 1911
Haustellum wilsoni d'Attilio and Old 1971
Murex (Haustellum) naricus Vredenburg 1925
Murex (Haustellum) tchihatcheffi d'Archiac and Haime 1854
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Homolocantha secunda Lamarck 1822
G. Maxwellia Baily 1950
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Maxwellia eldridgei Arnold 1907
Maxwellia gemma Sowerby II 1879
G. Murex Linnaeus 1758
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Subg. Murex (Murex) Linnaeus 1758
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Murex (Murex) gilli Maury 1910
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Invalid names: Murex (Murex) dasus Gardner 1947 [synonym]
Murex (Murex) nicholsi Gardner 1947
Murex (Murex) toreia Maury 1925
Invalid names: Murex (Acupurpura) [synonym]
Subg. Murex (Promurex) Ponder and Vokes 1988
+
Subg. Murex (Rhinocantha) Adams 1853
Subg. Murex (Subpterynotus) Olsson and Harbison 1953
Murex asteriscus Tate 1888
Murex bifrons Tate 1888
Murex camplytropis Tate 1888
Murex cancellinus Lamarck 1803
Murex cingulatus Lamarck 1803
Murex clathratus Lamarck 1803
Murex colubrinus Lamarck 1803
Murex concinnus Reeve 1845
Murex contabulatus Lamarck 1803
Murex cowlitzensis Weaver 1912
Murex crowfootii Wood 1879
Murex davisi Richards 1943
Murex didymus Tate 1888
Murex fluctuosus Forbes 1846
Murex frondosus Lamarck 1803
Murex grooti Jenkins 1864
Murex hamiltonensis Tate 1888
Murex junghuhni Martin 1879
Murex kellumi Richards 1943
Murex lignarius Adams 1853
Murex macgillivrayi Dohrn 1862
Murex manubriatus Tate 1888
Murex minutus Johnston 1879
Murex mississippiensis Conrad 1848
Murex nodularius Lamarck 1803
Murex packardi Dickerson 1915
Murex paradoxicus Jenkins 1864
Murex perangulatus Nomland 1916
Murex pondicherriensis Forbes 1846
Murex prionotus Tate 1888
Murex pseudonystii Wood 1879
Murex reedi Wood 1877
Murex reticulosus Lamarck 1803
Murex rhysus Tate 1888
Murex sandersoni Cox 1930
Murex scorpionius Olsson 1930
Murex sopenahensis Weaver 1912
Murex spinacostatas Valenciennes 1858
Murex striatulus Lamarck 1803
Murex temalentus Hanna 1924
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Invalid names: Murex (Ocinebra) concinna Nomland 1917 [replaced]
Murex textiliosus Lamarck 1803
Murex torturosus Sowerby 1823
Murex trinodosus Tate 1888
Murex tripterus Born 1778
Murex tubifer Lamarck 1803
Murex viperinus Lamarck 1803
Murex wadiai Cox 1930
G. Poirieria Jousseaume 1880
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Subg. Poirieria (Paziella) Jousseaume 1880
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Paziella eyrei Tenison Woods 1877
Paziella graniformis Harris 1897
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Invalid names: Murex (Ocenebra) alevolatus Tate 1888 [replaced]
Paziella legrandi Johnston 1880
Paziella subcoronata d'Orbigny 1850
Paziella trochispira Tate 1888
Poirieria (Paziella) atlantis Clench and Pérez Farfante 1945
Invalid names: Murex (Bathymurex) Clench and Pérez Farfante 1945 [synonym], Paziella (Dallimurex) Rehder 1946 [synonym]
Subg. Poirieria (Poirieria) Jousseaume 1880
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Poirieria albionis Wrigley 1934
Poirieria calcitrapa Lamarck 1803
Poirieria levis Traub 1979
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Invalid names: Hexaplex (Paziella) robusta Traub 1980 [synonym]
Poirieria subcristata d'Orbigny 1850
Poirieria zelandicus Quoy and Gaimard 1834
G. †Pseudoperissolax Clark 1918
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Pseudoperissolax blakei Conrad 1855
Pseudoperissolax iseakai Oyama and Mizuno 1958
G. Vokesimurex Petuch 1994
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Vokesimurex anniae Smith 1940
Vokesimurex cabritii Bernardi 1859
Vokesimurex messorius Sowerby 1841
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Invalid names: Murex (Murex) woodringi Clench and Pérez Farfante 1945 [synonym], Murex funiculatus Reeve 1845 [synonym], Murex nigrescens Sowerby II 1841 [synonym], Murex samui Sunderland 2003 [synonym], Murex sutilis White 1887 [synonym]
Vokesimurex polynematicus Brown and Pilsbry 1911
Vokesimurex recurvirostris Broderip 1832
Vokesimurex sallasi Rehder and Abbott 1951
Vokesimurex tryoni Hidalgo 1880
G. Muricopsis Bucquoy et al. 1882
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Subg. Muricopsis (Muricopsis) Bucquoy et al. 1882
Subg. †Muricopsis (Risomurex) Olsson and McGinty 1958
Muricopsis exhexagonus Vredenburg 1925
Muricopsis peregra Beyrich 1854
Muricopsis vistaensis Givens and Kennedy 1976
Muricopsis whitneyi Gabb 1864
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Invalid names: Murex beali Anderson and Hanna 1925 [synonym]
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+
+
Invalid names: Acanthina lapilloides Conrad 1837 [synonym]
Acanthinucella spirata Blainville 1832
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Invalid names: Monoceras engonatum Conrad 1837 [synonym]
Nucella etchegoinensis Arnold 1909
Nucella incrassata Sowerby 1825
Nucella lamellosa Gmelin 1791
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Invalid names: Buccinum crispatum Chemnitz 1795 [synonym]
Nucella lapillus Linnaeus 1758
Nucella praecingulata Haughton 1932
Thais (Nucella) collomi Carson 1926
Thais (Nucella) elsmerensis Grant, IV and Gale 1931
G. †Nucellopsis Merle 2005
G. Ocenebra Leach in Gray 1847
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Murex (Ocinebra) nashi Dickerson 1916
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Invalid names: Murex (Ocinebra) packardi Clark 1915 [replaced]
Murex (Ocinebra) tethys Nomland 1917
Ocenebra ashiyaensis Nagao 1928
Ocenebra bonaccorsii Carrington and Kensley 1969
Ocenebra clarki Addicott 1970
Ocenebra crassilabiatus Hilber 1879
Ocenebra credneri Hõrnes and Auinger 1885
Ocenebra depoensis Moore 1963
Ocenebra erinaceus Linnaeus 1758
Ocenebra gabbiana Anderson 1905
Ocenebra milicentana Loel and Corey 1932
Ocenebra petrocyon Kensley and Pether 1986
Ocenebra scalaris Brocchi 1814
Ocenebra striata Eichwald 1853
Ocenebra trophonoides Anderson and Martin 1914
Ocenebra wilkesana Anderson 1905
Ocinebra dietrichi Bohm 1926
Subfm. Ocenebrinae Cossmann 1903
+
G. Acanthina Fischer de Waldheim 1807 [unicorn]
+
Acanthina katzi Fleming 1972
Acanthina monodon Pallas 1974
Acanthina obesa DeVries 2003
Acanthina perrini Trask 1922
Acanthina rugosa DeVries 2003
Acanthina triangularis DeVries 2003
Acanthina unicornis Bruguiére 1789
G. †Califostoma Bean and Vermeij 2016
+
Califostoma rotundivaricosum Bean and Vermeij 2016
Califostoma turris Nomland 1916
G. †Carhuaspina DeVries 2005
+
Carhuaspina comotrana DeVries 2005
G. Crassilabrum Jousseaume 1880
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Crassilabrum crassilabrum Sowerby 1834
G. Eupleura Adams and Adams 1853
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Eupleura curta Arnold 1903
Eupleura engerrabunda Herbert 2005
Eupleura gravidentata Herbert 2005
Eupleura harbisoni Richards 1943
Eupleura kugleri Jung 1965
Eupleura lehneri Jung 1969
Eupleura leonensis Mansfield 1930
Eupleura limata Dall 1890
Eupleura muriciformis Broderip 1833
Eupleura nitida Broderip 1833
Eupleura olssoni Vokes 1989
Eupleura paroudia Herbert 2005
Eupleura pectinata Hinds 1844
Eupleura plicata Reeve 1844
Eupleura prenitida Vokes 1989
Eupleura thompsoni Woodring 1959
Eupleura triquetra Reeve 1844
Eupleura urbinai DeVries 2005
Eupleura vokesorum Herbert 2005
G. Forreria Jousseaume 1880
+
Forreria belcheri Hinds 1843
Forreria cancellaroides Arnold 1909
Forreria coalingense Arnold 1909
Forreria emersoni Addicott 1970
G. †Herminespina DeVries and Vermeij 1997
+
Herminespina mirabilis Möricke 1896
Herminespina philippi Möricke 1896
Herminespina saskiae DeVries and Vermeij 1997
G. †Jsowerbya Merle 2004
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Jsowerbya auversiensis Deshayes 1865
Jsowerbya sexdentatus Sowerby 1823
G. †Kestocenebra Vermeij 1998
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Kestocenebra curvicosta Grateloup 1840
G. †Mariasalpinx Petuch 1988
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Mariasalpinx emilyae Petuch 1988
G. Muregina Vermeij 1998
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Muregina carlosmithi DeVries 2005
Muregina lugubris Broderip 1833
Muregina marijkeae DeVries 2005
G. Pterorytis Conrad 1862
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Pterorytis pacanana DeVries 2005
Pterorytis roxaneae Petuch 1994
Pterorytis umbrifer Conrad 1832
G. †Pterynopsis Vokes 1972
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Pterynopsis meridionalis Lozouet 1999
G. †Tactilispina DeVries 2005
+
Tactilispina vermeiji DeVries 2005
G. Urosalpinx Stimpson 1865
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Urosalpinx coombsi Durham 1944
Urosalpinx cossmanni Ortmann 1900
Urosalpinx curtansata Tate 1888
Urosalpinx haneti Petit 1856
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Invalid names: Urosalpinx rushii Pilsbry 1897 [synonym]
Urosalpinx hannibali Dickerson 1915
Urosalpinx kirbyi Clark 1938
Urosalpinx rusticus Conrad 1839
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Invalid names: Ocinebra michaeli Ford 1888 [synonym], Pteropurpura waldorfensis Arnold 1907 [synonym]
Urosalpinx subrusticus d'Orbigny 1852
Invalid names: Zulloia Petuch 1994 [synonym]
G. †Vokesinotus Petuch 1988
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Vokesinotus lepidotus Dall 1890
G. Ocinebrina Jousseaume 1880
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Ocinebrina bistriata Gumbel 1861
Ocinebrina concerpta Bellardi 1873
Ocinebrina coryphaena Woodring 1946
Ocinebrina edwardsi Payraudeau 1826
Ocinebrina imbricata Brocchi 1814
Ocinebrina keepi Arnold 1903
Ocinebrina lassaignei Basterot 1825
Ocinebrina squamulifera Carpenter in Gabb 1869
Ocinebrina tenuisculpta Carpenter 1866
Subfm. Ocinebrinae Cossmann 1903
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G. Paciocinebrina Houart et al. 2019
+
+
Invalid names: Tritonalia clathrata Dall 1919 [synonym]
Paciocinebrina lurida Middendorff 1848
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Paciocinebrina munda Carpenter 1863
Invalid names: Ocinebra lurida cerritensis Arnold 1903 [synonym]
G. Orania Pallary 1900
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Orania cheilotoma Hörnes and Auinger 1890
G. Pagodula Monterosato 1884
G. Phyllocoma Tapparone and Canefri 1881
G. Ponderia Houart 1986
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Ponderia abessensis Lozouet 1998
Ponderia zelandica Hutton 1874
G. Pterochelus Jousseaume 1880
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Pterynotus (Pterochelus) ariomus Clench and Pérez Farfante 1945
Invalid names: Alipurpura Fischer 1884 [objective synonym]
G. Pteropurpura Josseaume 1880
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Subg. Pteropurpura (Pteropurpura) Josseaume 1880
Pteropurpura marksi Olsson 1964
Pteropurpura trialata Sowerby 1834
Pteropurpura tricarinata Lamarck 1803
G. †Pterorhytis Conrad 1862
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Pterorhytis conradi Dall 1890
G. Pterotyphis Jousseaume 1880
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Subg. Pterotyphis (Tripterotyphis) Pilsbry 1931
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Invalid names: Pterynotus (Nothotyphis) Fleming 1962 [synonym]
Invalid names: Trigonotyphis Jousseaume 1882 [synonym]
G. Pterymarchia Houart 1995
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Pterymarchia denudata Deshayes 1835
G. Pterynotus Swainson 1833 [mustached bat]
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Subg. Pterynotus (Pterynotus) Swainson 1833
+
+
Invalid names: Murex (Pterynotus) pygmaeus Bush 1893 [synonym]
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Invalid names: Murex (Pteronotus) tristichus Dall 1889 [replaced]
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Invalid names: Murex veatchi Palmer 1937 [replaced]
Pterynotus (Pterynotus) washingtonicus Squires and Goedert 1995
Pterynotus (Pterynotus) weisbordi Harris and Palmer 1947
Pterynotus swainsoni Michelotti 1841
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Invalid names: Murex affinis Michelotti 1847 [synonym]
Pterynotus velificus Tate 1888
Pterynotus washingtonicus Squires and Goedert 1995
Invalid names: Marchia Jousseaume 1880 [synonym], Pterymurex Roverto 1899 [synonym], Timbellus de Gregario 1885 [synonym]
G. Purpura Bruguière 1789
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Subg. †Purpura (Thalessa) Adams and Adams 1854
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Purpura (Thalessa) mekranica Vredenburg 1925
Subg. Purpura (Tritonalia) Fleming 1828
+
Tritonalia dorrancei Loel and Corey 1932
Tritonalia volutaeformis Dickerson 1915
Tritonalia yneziana Loel and Corey 1932
Purpura alata Röding 1798
Purpura bufo Lamarck 1822
Purpura bufo Lamarck 1822
Purpura depressa Martin 1879
Purpura foliata Gmelin 1791
Purpura liguta Riedel 1933
Purpura mancinella Linnaeus 1758
Purpura nanna Nomland 1917
Purpura saxicola Valenciennes 1846
Purpura singuensis Vredenburg 1921
Purpura topangensis Arnold 1907
Purpura turrita Martin 1879
Purpura umbilicata Jenkins 1864
G. Purpurellus Jousseaume 1880
+
Purpurellus veranyi Paulucci 1866
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Invalid names: Murex gastraldii Bellardi 1873 [synonym]
Invalid names: Triremis Fischer 1884 [objective synonym]
G. †Pygmaepterys Vokes 1978
+
Pygmaepterys drezi Vokes and D'Attilio 1980
Pygmaepterys germainae Vokes and D'Attilio 1980
Pygmaepterys pratulum Vokes and D'Attilio 1980
Subfm. Rapaninae Gray 1853
+
G. †Califrapana Powell, II and Houart 2021
+
+
Invalid names: Rapana imperialis Hertlein and Jordan 1927 [synonym], Rapana serrai Wiedey 1928 [synonym]
G. Concholepas Lamarck 1801
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Concholepas camerata DeVries 2000
Concholepas chirotensis DeVries 2000
Concholepas concholepas Bruguiére 1789
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Invalid names: Concholepas peruviana Lamarck 1801 [synonym]
Concholepas drezi Vokes 1972
Concholepas kieneri Hupé 1854
Concholepas nodosa Möricke 1896
Concholepas unguis DeVries 1995
G. †Ecphora Conrad 1843
+
Subg. †Ecphora (Ecphora) Wilson 1987
+
Subg. †Ecphora (Stenomphalus) Sandberger 1861
+
Subg. †Ecphora (Trisecphora) Petuch 1988
+
Ecphora gardnerae Wilson 1987
+
Ecphora gardnerae germonae Ward and Gilinsky 1988
Ecphora kochi Ward and Gilinsky 1988
Ecphora meganae Ward and Gilinsky 1988
+
Ecphora meganae williamsi Ward and Gilinsky 1988
Ecphora meganae meganae Ward and Gilinsky 1988
Ecphora pamlico Wilson 1987
Ecphora quadricostata Conrad 1830
Ecphora tampaensis Dall 1890
Ecphora tricostata Martin 1904
G. †Indothais Claremont et al. 2013
+
Indothais lacera Born 1778
+
Invalid names: Cuma disjuncta Annandale 1922 [synonym]
G. †Neorapana Cooke 1918
+
Neorapana imperialis Hertlein and Jorda 1927
Neorapana vaquerosensis Arnold 1908
G. Rapana Schumacher 1817
+
Subg. †Rapana (Nigerapana) Adegoke 1977
+
Rapana bulbosa Solander 1817
Rapana mekranica Cox 1936
Rapana perrini Clark and Arnold 1923
Rapana vaughani Mansfield 1937
G. †Sargana Stephenson 1923
+
Sargana stantoni Weller 1907
G. Stramonita Schumacher 1817
+
Stramonita brasiliensis Claremont et al. 2011
Stramonita delessertiana d'Orbigny 1841
+
Invalid names: Stramonita caracolensis DeVries 2007 [synonym]
+
Invalid names: Cymia caloosana Tucker and Wilson 1933 [synonym]
Stramonita haemostoma Linnaeus 1767
Stramonita penelaevis Vermeij and Herbert 2004
Stramonita rustica Lamarck 1822
Stramonita semiplicata Vermeij 2001
Stramonita zinsmeisteri DeVries 2007
Thais (Stramonita) exilis Parsch in Hörnes 1856
G. Thaisella Clench 1947
+
+
Tritonopsis biconica Dall 1915
Tritonopsis gilletti Richards 1943
G. Reishia Kuroda and Habe 1971
+
Reishia bifida Vermeij 2001
Reishia capensis Saussaye 1852
G. Shaskyus Burch and Campbell 1963
G. Siphonochelus Jousseaume 1880
+
Subg. †Siphonochelus (Laevityphis) Cossmann 1903
+
Subg. Laevityphis (Laevityphis) Cossmann 1903
+
Laevityphis (Laevityphis) ludbrookae Keen and Campbell 1964
+
Invalid names: Typhis (Typhina) alternata Lea 1833 [synonym]
+
Invalid names: Typhis coronarius Deshayes 1865 [synonym]
Siphonochelus (Laevityphis) schencki Keen and Campbell 1964
Invalid names: Typhis (Neotyphis) Vella 1961 [synonym]
Subg. Siphonochelus (Trubatsa) Dall 1889
+
Siphonochelus fistulatus Schlotheim 1820
Invalid names: Choreotyphis Iredale 1936 [synonym], Eotyphis Tembrock 1963 [synonym]
G. †Sohliina Özdikmen 2013
+
Sohliina cucullata Sohl 1964
Sohliina funiculus Sohl 1964
Sohliina liratus Wade 1926
G. †Spinidrupa Habe and Kosuge 1966
+
G. †Spinucella Vermeij 1993
+
Spinucella plessisi Lecointre 1952
Spinucella tetragona Sowerby 1825
Subfm. †Thaidinae Jousseaume 1888
+
G. Agnewia Tenison-Woods 1878
G. Ceratostoma Hermannsen 1846
+
Ceratostoma monoceros Sowerby 1840
Invalid names: Cerostoma Conrad 1837 [replaced]
G. †Drupina Dall 1923
G. †Haustrum Perry 1811
G. Lepsiella Iredale 1912
G. †Pinaxia Adams and A. 1853
G. †Vexilla Swainson 1840
G. Thais Röding 1798
+
Subg. Thais (Mancinella) Link 1807
+
Mancinella aculeata Deshayes and Milne-Edwards 1844
+
Invalid names: Purpura hippocastanum Lamarck 1822 [synonym]
Subg. †Thais (Polytropa) Swainson 1840
+
Thais (Polytropa) lima Martyn 1784
Subg. Thais (Thais) Röding 1798
Subg. †Thais (Vasula) Mörch 1860
+
Thais arenae Kensley and Pether 1986
Thais biserialis de Blainville 1832
+
Invalid names: Thais (Stramonita) berryi Olsson 1932 [synonym]
Thais bitubercularis Lamarck 1822
Thais blakei Anderson and Martin 1914
Thais brevicula Vermeij 2001
Thais clarkensis Aldrich 1911
Thais cornwalli Clark and Arnold 1923
Thais dubia Krauss 1848
Thais emarginata Deshayes 1839
Thais lamellosa Gmelin 1791
Thais packi Clark 1918
+
Invalid names: Thais (Stramonita) carrizoensis Loel and Corey 1932 [synonym]
Thais panzana Anderson and Martin 1914
Thais trancosana Arnold 1908
Thais tuberosa Röding 1798
Thais wittichi Hertlein and Jordan 1927
Invalid names: Cuma Swainson 1840 [synonym]
G. Trachypollia Woodring 1928
+
Trachypollia aneureta Woodring 1964
Trachypollia sclera Woodring 1928
Subfm. Trophoninae Cossmann 1903
+
G. Anatrophon Iredale 1929
G. †Apixystus Iredale 1929
+
Apixystus polyphyllia Woods 1879
G. †Benthoxystus Iredale 1929
G. †Chesatrophon Petuch 1988
+
G. Enatimene Iredale 1929
G. †Enixotrophon Iredale 1929
G. †Eopaziella Gürs 2001
+
Eopaziella capito Philippi 1843
Eopaziella deshayesii Nyst 1836
G. †Gemixystus Iredale 1929
G. Lenitrophon Finlay 1927
G. †Litozamia Iredale 1929
+
G. Paratrophon Finlay 1926
G. Scabrotrophon McLean 1996
+
G. Terefundus Finlay 1926
G. Trophon Montfort 1810
+
+
Subg. †Sipho (Parvisipho) Cossmann 1889
Subg. †Trophon (Trophon) Montfort 1810
Trophon alta Wood 1842
Trophon alveolatum Sowerby 1826
Trophon anceps Tate 1888
Trophon calamitus Hanna 1924
+
Invalid names: Murex vaughani Dickerson 1917 [replaced]
Trophon carringtoni Kensley and Pether 1986
Trophon consociale Wood 1848
Trophon daviesi Trask 1922
Trophon dickersoni Clark 1915
Trophon disparoides Wilckens 1912
Trophon elegans Charlesworth 1837
Trophon geversianum Pallas 1774
Trophon gracilius Wood 1842
Trophon hypsellus Tate 1888
Trophon icosiphyllus Tate 1888
Trophon imperspicuum Wood 1848
Trophon isthmicus Bose 1906
Trophon kroteri Möller 1842
Trophon lawsoni Clark 1915
Trophon macharei DeVries 2005
Trophon magister Nomland 1916
Trophon mangelioides Tate 1888
Trophon monotropis Tate 1888
Trophon muricatus Montagu 1803
Trophon pallidus Broderip and Sowerby 1833
Trophon patagonicus Sowerby 1846
Trophon paululum Wood 1841
Trophon perelegans Nomland 1917
Trophon progne White 1887
Trophon pseudoturtoni Wood 1879
Trophon santacrucensis Ihering 1897
Trophon torquatus Tate 1888
Trophon truncatus Ström 1768
G. †Vesanula Finlay 1926
+
Xanthochorus aculeata Tate 1888
Xanthochorus buxeus Broderip 1833
Xanthochorus eripepomis DeVries 2005
Xanthochorus ochuroma DeVries 2005
Xanthochorus stephanicus DeVries 2005
Xanthochorus xuster DeVries 2005
G. Xenotrophon Iredale 1929
+
Xenotrophon basedowi Cossmann 1903
+
Invalid names: Murex (Chicoreus) irregularis Tate 1888 [replaced]
+
Invalid names: Xymenella Finlay 1927 [synonym]
G. Xymenopsis Powell 1951
+
Xymenopsis buccinea Lamarck 1816
Xymenopsis dispar Rochebrune and Mabile 1889
Xymenopsis hero Frassinetti and Covacevich 1995
Xymenopsis liratus Gould 1849
Xymenopsis muriciformis King and Broderip 1832
Subfm. †Typhinae Cossmann 1903
+
G. Typhina Jousseaume 1880
+
Typhina alata Sowerby 1850
Typhina belcheri Broderip 1833
Typhina disjunctus Tate 1888
Typhina expansa Sowerby 1874
+
Invalid names: Talityphis perchardei Radwin and d'Attilio 1976 [synonym], Typhis melloleitaoi Morretes 1940 [synonym]
Typhina laciniatus Tate 1888
Typhina obesa Gabb 1873
Typhis (Typhina) palmerae Gertman 1969
Invalid names: Talityphis Jousseaume 1882 [synonym]
G. †Typhus Monfort 1810
+
Typhus dentatus Johnson 1899
G. Typhinellus Jousseaume 1880
+
G. Typhis Montfort 1810
+
Subg. Typhis (Ciphonochelus) Jousseaume 1882
+
Subg. Typhis (Haustellotyphis) Jousseaume 1880
Subg. Typhis (Rugotyphis) Vella 1961
+
Typhis (Rugotyphis) cleryi Petit de la Saussaye 1840
+
Invalid names: Typhis (Typhinellus) carolinensis Olsson and Petit 1964 [synonym]
Subg. Typhis (Typhis) Montfort 1810
+
Typhis (Typhis) pungens Solander in Brander and Brander 1766
Typhis (Typhis) rutoti Cossmann 1882
Typhis (Typhis) tubifer Bruguière 1792
Invalid names: Typhis (Monstrotyphis) Habe 1961 [synonym]
Subg. Typhis (Typhisopsis) Jousseaume 1880
Typhis acanthopterus Tate 1888
Typhis acuticosta Conrad 1830
Typhis antiquus Gabb 1864
Typhis maccoyi Woods 1875
Typhis tripterus Tate 1888
Invalid names: Hirotyphis Jousseaume 1880 [synonym]
G. Vitularia Swainson 1840
+
Vitularia ecuadoriana Marks 1951
G. †Yasila
+
Yasila chiraensis Olsson 1931
Yasila paytensis Olsson 1930
G. †Yunomys Qiu and Storch 1990
+
Yunomys wui Qiu and Storch 1990
Invalid names: Haustrinae Tan 2003 [empty], Muricopsinae Radwin 1971 [empty], Tripterotyphinae d'Atillo and Hertz 1988 [empty], Tritonaliinae [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: aragonitec
Locomotion: actively mobilef
Life habit: epifaunalf
Diet: carnivoref
Vision: limitedc
Comments: LIFE HISTORY: Predatory carnivore according to Todd (2001).f
Created: 2009-09-10 08:22:24
Modified: 2009-09-10 10:22:24
Source: f = family, c = class
References: Kiessling 2004, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Aptian to the top of the Holocene or 125.00000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 122.46 Ma

Collections (2316 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Germany Sipho schrammeni (67184)
Early/Lower Aptian121.4 - 122.46Switzerland Murex prestensis (2175 2232)
Albian113.0 - 100.5Hungary Tritonalia urgonense (74891)
Albian113.0 - 100.5Switzerland Murex carinella, Murex sabaudianus, Murex bilineatus (2237)
Early/Lower Albian112.03 - 109.0United Kingdom (England) Sipho gaultinus (1864)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6United Kingdom (England) Murex calcar (6280 51673)
Late/Upper Albian - Cenomanian105.3 - 93.9Madagascar Rapa cancellata (98219)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Germany Murex pleurotomoides (66779)
Coniacian89.8 - 86.3Cameroon Purpura liguta (209692)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6South Africa (Eastern Cape) Trophon umzambiensis (47109)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (North Carolina) Lowenstamia liratus (7612)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Delaware) Ecphora sp. (6135)
Early/Lower Campanian - Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Texas) Ecphora proquadricostata, Sargana sp. (7513)
Early/Lower Campanian - Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Mississippi) Ecphora proquadricostata, Sargana stantoni (32141) Lowenstamia funiculus, Sargana stantoni (6660) Sargana stantoni (32139 32140 32142)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Delaware) Sargana sp. (6171 6174)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Tennessee) Hippocampoides liratus, Ecphora proquadricostata, Sargana stantoni (88357)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Texas) Sargana stantoni (7442 7481 7482)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0USA (Tennessee) Lowenstamia liratus, Ecphora proquadricostata, Sargana stantoni (7515)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Mississippi) Ecphora proquadricostata, Sargana stantoni (7600) Sargana stantoni (7597 205536)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Texas) Calotrophon sp., Poirieria cretacea, Lowenstamia liratus, Sargana stantoni (205541) Poirieria cretacea, Sargana sp. (205510) Sargana sp. (205529) Sargana stantoni (7483)