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Pugnacoidea

Rhynchonellata - Rhynchonellida

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1956Pugnacoidea Rzhonsnitskaia
2002Pugnacoidea Williams et al. p. 1165
2013Pugnacoidea Emig et al. p. 76

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
Lophophorata
RankNameAuthor
PanbrachiopodaCarlson and Cohen 2020
phylumBrachiopodaCuvier 1805
subphylumRhynchonelliformeaWilliams et al. 1996
classRhynchonellataWilliams et al. 1996
orderRhynchonellidaKuhn 1949
superfamilyPugnacoideaRzhonsnitskaia 1956
superfamilyPugnacoideaRzhonsnitskaia 1956

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Superfm. Pugnacoidea Rzhonsnitskaia 1956
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Fm. †Aseptorhynchiidae Savage 1996
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G. †Isopoma
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Isopoma triplicatum Sapelnikov and Mizens 1996
Fm. Basiliolidae Cooper 1959
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Subfm. †Aetheiinae Cooper 1959
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G. †Aetheia
+
Aetheia gualteri Morris 1850
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Invalid names: Waldheimia sinuata Hutton 1873 [synonym]
Invalid names: Thomsonica Cossmann 1920 [objective synonym]
Subfm. †Aphelesiinae Cooper 1959
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G. †Aphelesia Cooper 1959
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Aphelesia bipartita Brocchi 1814
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Invalid names: Hemithyris acuta Meznerics 1943 [synonym]
Aphelesia margineplicata Philippi 1844
Aphelesia winebergeri Bitner and Schneider 2009
Invalid names: Phapsirhynchia Pajaud 1976 [synonym]
G. †Basiliocostella Dulai et al. 2008
+
Basiliocostella kambueheli Dulai et al. 2008
Subfm. Basiliolinae Cooper 1959
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G. †Apringia
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Apringia barnabasi Vörös 2009
Apringia deltoidea Canavari 1880
Apringia diptycha Bose 1898
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Invalid names: Rhynchonella busina de Gregorio 1930 [synonym], Terebratula cerilla de Gregorio 1930 [synonym], Terebratula misga de Gregorio 1930 [synonym], Terebratula sghemba de Gregorio 1930 [synonym]
Apringia paolii Canavari 1880
Apringia piccininii Zittel 1869
+
Invalid names: Rhynchonella aptyga Canavari 1880 [synonym]
G. Basiliola Dall 1908
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Basiliola arnaudi Cooper 1981
Basiliola elongata Cooper 1959
Basiliola lucida Gould 1860
Basiliola minuta Bitner 1996
Basiliola nitida Cooper 1957
Basiliola roddai Cooper 1978
Basiliola strasfogeli Cooper 1978
Invalid names: Neohemithyris Yabe and Hatai 1934 [synonym]
G. †Eohemithyris Hertlein and Grant IV 1944
+
Eohemithyris alexi Hertlein and Grant IV 1944
Eohemithyris grayi Woodward 1855
Eohemithyris wildei Craig 1999
G. †Fortunella Calzada 1985
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Fortunella acutifrons Sulser and Follmi 1984
Fortunella barczyki Calzada 1985
Fortunella capillata Zittel 1870
Fortunella fastigata Gillieron 1873
Fortunella fortunae Calzada 1985
Fortunella makridini Tchoumatchenco 1987
Fortunella monsalvensis Gillieron 1873
Fortunella moutoniana d'Orbigny 1847
Fortunella praemoutoniana Sulser and Calzada 1991
G. †Megapringia Vörös 2009
+
+
Invalid names: Rhynchonella margaritati Bose 1898 [synonym]
Megapringia stoppanii Parona 1880
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Invalid names: Rhynchonella undata Parona 1880 [synonym]
G. Neorhynchia Thomson 1915
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G. †Probolarina Cooper 1959
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Probolarina breviostris Cooper 1988
Probolarina holmesi Dall 1903
Probolarina salpinx Dall 1903
Probolarina transversa Cooper 1988
G. Rhytirhynchia Cooper 1957
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Rhytirhynchia hataiana Cooper 1957
G. †Rionirhynchia Kamyshan and Kvakhadze 1980
G. †Sepkoskirhynchia Radulović 2022
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Sepkoskirhynchia sphaerica Radulović 2022
G. †Serratapringia Vörös 2009
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Serratapringia mariottii Zittel 1869
Serratapringia suetii Haas 1884
Serratapringia tella de Gregorio 1930
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Soaresirhynchia babtisrensis Rousselle 1968
Soaresirhynchia bouchardi Davidson 1852
+
Invalid names: Rhynchonella calva Dubar 1931 [synonym]
Soaresirhynchia minor Andrade 2006
Soaresirhynchia renzi Choffat 1947
Soaresirhynchia tamazirta Rousselle 1974
G. †Streptaria Cooper 1959
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Streptaria arabica Elliott 1960
Streptaria debuchii Michelotti 1839
Streptaria deformis Seguenza 1866
Streptaria streptimorpha Cooper 1959
G. †Ussurirhynchia Koczyrkevicz 1976
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Ussurirhynchia licharewi Koczyrkevicz 1976
Subfm. †Lacunosellinae Smirnova 1963
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G. †Lacunosella Wisniewska 1932
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Subg. †Lacunosella (Lacunosella) Wiśniewska 1932
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Lacunosella cracoviensis Quenstedt 1871
Lacunosella lacunosa Schlotheim 1813
Lacunosella malbosi Pictet 1867
Lacunosella monsalvensiformis Jacob and Fallot 1913
Lacunosella pachytheca Zeuschner 1855
Lacunosella sparsicosta Quenstedt 1858
Lacunosella sphaeroides Jin et al. 1979
Lacunosella spoliata Suess 1858
Lacunosella trilobata Zieten 1832
Lacunosella vaga Childs 1969
G. †Mondegia Andrade 2006
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Mondegia atla Oppel 1863
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Invalid names: Rhynchonella coarctata Oppel 1863 [synonym]
Mondegia limica Andrade 2006
G. †Stolmorhynchia Buckman 1917
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+
Praelacunosella subrakoviensis Wisniewska and Zelichowska 1978
Stolmorhynchia dresnayi Rousselle 1965
Stolmorhynchia dubari Rousselle 1965
Stolmorhynchia dypterix Redlich 1894
Stolmorhynchia inconspicua Kamyshan 1973
Stolmorhynchia karatschae Kamyshan 1973
Stolmorhynchia kusnetzovi Kamyshan 1973
Stolmorhynchia minuta Babanova 1966
Stolmorhynchia nobilis Sowerby 1837
Stolmorhynchia robinsoni Kamyshan 1973
Stolmorhynchia solaris Babanova 1966
Stolmorhynchia stolidota Buckman 1917
Stolmorhynchia sulcata Parkinson 1811
Stolmorhynchia szajnochi Tchorzhevsky 1970
Stolmorhynchia triplicata Kamyshan 1973
Stolmorhynchia urupensis Kamyshan 1973
Stolmorhynchia vigilii Lepsius 1878
+
Invalid names: Rhynchonella erycina Di Stefano 1884 [synonym]
Invalid names: Dzhangirhynchia [synonym]
Subfm. †Pamirorhynchiinae Ovcharenko 1983
+
G. Gagriella Moiseev 1939
G. †Jakubirhynchia Tomasovych 2006
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G. †Orbirhynchia Pettitt 1954
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Orbirhynchia bella Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia compta Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia cuvieri d'Orbigny 1847
Orbirhynchia dispansa Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia extensa Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia granum Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia heberti Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia mantelliana d'Sowerby 1826
Orbirhynchia multicostata Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia obscura Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia orbignyi Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia oweni Rabrenovic et al. 2002
Orbirhynchia parva Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia pisiformis Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia praedispansa Pettitt 1954
Orbirhynchia reedensis Etheridge 1881
Orbirhynchia wiesti Quenstedt 1871
+
Pamirorhynchia jorali Andrade 2006
Invalid names: Aidynkulirhynchia [synonym]
G. †Riorhynchia Iasiukevich 1974
G. †Veghirhynchia Dagys 1974
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Veghirhynchia arpadica Bittner 1890
Veghirhynchia blassi Bittner 1890
Veghirhynchia cornaliana Bittner 1890
Veghirhynchia semicostata Münster 1841
Fm. †Camerophorinidae Rzhonsnitskaia 1958
+
G. †Camerophorina Schmidt 1941
Fm. †Erymnariidae Cooper 1959
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Subfm. †Calvirhynchiinae Kamyshan 1967
+
+
Calvirhynchia kubanensis Kamyschan 1967
G. †Costerymnaria Motchurova and Ruggiero 2000
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Costerymnaria apula Motchurova and Ruggiero 2000
Costerymnaria italica Motchurova and Ruggiero 2000
Subfm. †Cryptorhynchiinae Shi and Grant 1993
+
G. †Aethirhynchia Shi 1990
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G. †Crurirhynchia Dagys 1961
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Crurirhynchia baqenae Jin et al. 1979
Crurirhynchia deminuta Jin and Sun 1976
Crurirhynchia zaquica Jin et al. 1979
G. †Cryptorhynchia Buckman 1917
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Cryptorhynchia cymatophora Rothpletz 1886
Cryptorhynchia jhooraensis Mukherjee et al. 2002
Cryptorhynchia karuna Mukherjee et al. 2002
Cryptorhynchia rugosa Kitchin 1900
G. †Dierisma
+
Dierisma furcatum Jin et al. 1979
Dierisma simplexa Sun 1981
Subfm. †Erymnariinae Cooper 1959
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G. †Erymnaria Cooper 1959
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Erymnaria bolcensis Massalongo 1850
Erymnaria cubensis Cooper 1959
Erymnaria matensis Motchurova and Ruggiero 2000
Erymnaria polymorpha Massalongo 1850
Subfm. †Septocrurellinae Ager et al. 1972
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G. †Caucasella Moisseiev 1934
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Caucasella trigona Quenstedt 1852
Caucasella trigonella Rothpletz 1886
Caucasella voultensis Oppel 1865
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Septocrurella cuniopsis De Gregorio 1886
Septocrurella defluxa Oppel 1863
Septocrurella micula Oppel 1863
Septocrurella supinifrons Rothpletz 1886
Fm. †Ladogiidae Ljaschenko 1973
+
G. †Ladogia
+
Invalid names: Ladogilinella [synonym]
Fm. †Paranorellidae Cooper and Grant 1976
+
Subfm. †Iowarhynchinae Savage 1996
+
Subfm. †Paranorellinae Cooper and Grant 1976
+
G. †Gruntia Özdikmen 2008
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Gruntia garmoensis Grunt 1973
Invalid names: Boloria Grunt 1973 [replaced]
G. †Paranorella Cloud 1944
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Paranorella aquilonia Cooper and Grant 1976
Paranorella comptula Cooper and Grant 1976
Paranorella imperialis Cloud 1944
G. †Sanjuania
Fm. †Petasmariidae Savage 1996
+
G. †Bryorhynchus Cooper and Grant 1969
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Bryorhynchus bisulcatum Shumard 1858
Bryorhynchus gratiosum Girty 1908
Bryorhynchus nitidum Girty 1908
Bryorhynchus plicatum Cooper and Grant 1976
G. †Leiorhynchoidea Cloud 1944
+
Leiorhynchoidea amygdaloidea Cooper and Grant 1976
Leiorhynchoidea cloudi Cooper 1953
Leiorhynchoidea laevis Cloud 1944
Leiorhynchoidea rotundidorsa Cooper and Grant 1976
Leiorhynchoidea scelesta Cooper and Grant 1976
Leiorhynchoidea sulcata Cooper and Grant 1976
Leiorhynchoidea variabilis Ustritsky 1961
G. †Pugnoides Weller 1910
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Pugnoides mazhalaensis Jin and Shi 1979
Pugnoides quinqueplecis Easton 1962
Pugnoides tardivenus Waterhouse 1982
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Rhynoleichus delenjaensis Abramov and Grigorieva 1983
Rhynoleichus dorsoconvexa Shi and Waterhouse 1996
Rhynoleichus dsilensis Pavlova 1991
Rhynoleichus etschiensis Abramov and Grigorieva 1988
Rhynoleichus subglobosus Abramov and Grigorieva 1988
Rhynoleichus weeksi Girty 1908
G. †Shumardella Weller 1910
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Shumardella obsolescens Weller 1910
Fm. †Plectorhynchellidae Rzhonsnitskaia 1958
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Subfm. †Plectorhynchellinae Rzhonsnitskaia 1958
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G. †Ipherron
G. †Kindleina Savage et al. 1978
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Kindleina suemezensis Savage et al. 1978
G. †Nyege
G. †Plectorhynchella Cooper and Muir-Wood 1951
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Invalid names: Monticola Nalivkin 1930 [synonym]
Subfm. †Pygmaellinae Baranov 1977
+
G. †Pygmaella
G. †Pseudocapillirhynchia Motchurova-Dekova et al. 2009
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Pseudocapillirhynchia platoni Motchurova-Dekova et al. 2009
Fm. †Pugnacidae Rzonsnitzkaja 1956
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G. †Aikarhyncha Havlicek 1990
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Aikarhyncha praecox Barrande 1879
G. †Allorhynchoides Savage et al. 1978
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Allorhynchoides kirki Savage et al. 1978
G. †Chapinella Savage et al. 1978
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Chapinella bucareliensis Savage et al. 1978
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Coeloterorhynchus magnificum Cooper and Dutro 1982
G. †Colophragma Cooper and Dutro 1982
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Colophragma ellipticum Cooper and Dutro 1982
G. †Eopugnax
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Globulirhynchia minima Sokiran 2002
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Parapugnax ovata Wang 1985
Parapugnax qabdoensis Wang 1985
G. †Pleuropugnoides Ferguson 1966
G. †Propriopugnus Brunton 1984
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Propriopugnus pugnus Martin 1809
G. †Pugnax
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Pugnax kayseri Tschernyschew 1902
Pugnax keyserlingi Moeller 1862
Pugnax latesinuata Feng 1986
Pugnax morahensis Waagen 1883
Pugnax osagensis Swallow 1908
Pugnax sublaevis Mansuy 1913
Pugnax utah Marcou 1858
Invalid names: Physetorhyncha [synonym], Striatopugnax [synonym]
G. †Trifidorostellum Sartenaer 1961
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Trifidorostellum obscurum Cooper and Dutro 1982
G. †Zilimia
Fm. †Pygmaellidae Baranov 1977
+
G. †Pedderia Baranov and Blodgett 2016
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Pedderia fragosa Baranov and Blodgett 2016
Fm. †Rozmanariidae Havlicek 1982
+
G. †Errhynx
G. †Leptoterorhynchus Sartenaer 1998
+
Leptoterorhynchus magnus Biernat and Racki 1986
G. †Novaplatirostrum Sartenaer 1997
G. †Pugnaria
+
Pugnaria rotundata Münster 1840
Fm. †Yunnanellidae Rzhonsnitskaya 1959
+
G. †Ladogioides McLaren 1961
+
Ladogioides pax McLaren 1961
+
+
Schnurella schnurii de Verneuil 1840
+
Yunnanella hanburii Davidson 1853
Invalid names: Yunnanellina Grabau 1931 [objective synonym]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: low Mg calcitep
Environment: marineuc
Locomotion: stationaryo
Attached: yesp
Life habit: epifaunalo
Diet: suspension feedero
Vision: blindc
Created: 2004-02-28 14:12:25
Modified: 2004-02-28 16:12:25
Source: o = order, c = class, p = phylum, uc = unranked clade
References: Nesnidal et al. 2013, Aberhan et al. 2004

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Silurian to the top of the Middle Pleistocene or 443.80000 to 0.12900 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 419.2 Ma

Collections (1547 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Silurian443.8 - 419.2USA (California) Pugnax pugnus (229257)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8Russian Federation (Bashkortostan) Schnurella tabuskaensis (81653)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8Russian Federation (Arkhangel'skaya Oblast') Gracilotoechia sinuata, Sibiritoechia lata (40698)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8China (Guangxi) Kwangsirhynchus liujingensis (4000 4004) Kwangsirhynchus luijingensis (4003)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8Russian Federation (Bashkir) Yunnanellina tabuskaensis (13942)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8Uzbekistan Isopoma triplicatum (106712)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8Russian Federation (Sverdlovskaya Oblast) Schnurella tabuskaensis (81749)
Helderbergian - Emsian419.2 - 393.3Austria Pugnax sp. (26203)
Lochkovian - Emsian419.2 - 393.3Austria (Carnic Alps) Parapugnax sp., Pugnax preacuminatus, Pugnax scupini (77909)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6Russian Federation (Sverdlovskaya Oblast) Schnurella tabuskaensis (81750)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6Czech Republic Isopoma alecto (12101) Monticola prokopensis (12104)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6Czech Republic (Prague) Rackirhynchia lacerata, Aikarhyncha preacox (12071)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6Russian Federation (Bashkortostan) Schnurella tabuskaensis (81649 81654)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6USA (Alaska) Pedderia fragosa (176760)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6China (Guangxi) Kwangsirhynchus liujingensis (25812 25814 75914)
Pragian - Emsian410.8 - 393.3Tajikistan Pugnax julii (45831)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5USA (Alaska) Aseptirhynchia glabrata, Filigreenia circularis, Sibiritoechia sylvia (3477) Aseptirhynchia glabrata, Sibiritoechia sylvia (3483) Filigreenia circularis (3486) Sibiritoechia sylvia (3480)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Australia (Queensland) Parapugnax sp. (39875)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Czech Republic (Praha) Isopoma alecto (5804)
Zlichovian409.1 - 391.9Czech Republic (Barrandia) Monticola torleyi (12112)